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Extension > Mark Seeley's WeatherTalk > July 2012

Friday, July 20, 2012

Random pattern of thunderstorms prevails this month

Random pattern of thunderstorms prevails this month

Much of the state has been missed by significant rainfalls this month, leading to more Minnesota counties placed in drought status by the U.S. Drought Monitor. Portions of Rock and Nobles, as well as Clay, Norman, Polk, Mahnomen, Pennington, Red Lake, Marshall, and Beltrami Counties were place in the "severe drought" category this week. Much of the rest of northwestern and southwestern Minnesota remains in moderate drought. Elsewhere portions of southern Wisconsin, southern Illinois, Indiana and northern Missouri were placed in the "extreme drought" category.

Despite this, some areas have seen significant, even record-setting amounts of rainfall. On Friday, July 13th International Falls received a record 2.68 inches while Spring Grove received a record 2.95 inches. On July 18th (Wednesday this week) Bethel, Isanti, and Rice received over 2 inches of rainfall, while Milaca reported 1.35 inches and Spring Valley received 1.51 inches. For the month of July so far, the random pattern of thunderstorm activity has produced normal or above normal rainfall amounts for a handful of observers in widely dispersed sections of the state including:
Brainerd (4.17"), International Falls (4.02"), Spring Grove (3.91"), Stillwater (3.73"), Milaca (3.43"), Kabetogama (3.40"), Moose Lake (3.38"), Mora (3.31"), Ottertail (3.11"), and Hallock (2.28").

New Seasonal Climate Outlooks

The NOAA Climate Prediction Center issued new seasonal climate outlooks on Thursday (July 19) covering the period from August through October. For Minnesota the outlooks favor warmer and drier conditions to prevail in August. For the August through October period continuation of the above normal temperature trend of the past year is expected, while precipitation is expected to be below normal in the southeastern part of the state.

Hot weather continues

Temperatures across the region remained well above normal again this week. According to Greg Spoden of the Minnesota State Climatology Office the temperature pattern so far this month is on pace to give us one of the warmest Julys in history. Many places reported Heat Index Values of 100 F or greater again this week, and there were some record temperatures set. On July 16th Milan reported a record warm overnight low of 76 degrees F after a daytime high of 100 degrees F. Then on July 17th Madison (Lac Qui Parle County) reported a record high of 100 degrees F and La Crosse, WI also reported a record high of 100 degrees F. Fortunately cloud cover and somewhat cooler air prevailed on July 18 and 19 holding temperatures down in the 70s and 80s F many places. But a return of the heat is expected this weekend.

25th Anniversary of the Twin Cities greatest rainfall

Between 7:00 pm and 1:00 am the night of July 23 (a Thursday), 1987 a severe thunderstorm complex brought ten inches of rain to MSP International Airport, by far the most ever measured in a single day there. For three consecutive hours, 7-10 pm, the rainfall intensity exceeded 2 inches per hour (a once in 25 year occurrence), and for two hours, 8-10 pm, the intensity exceeded 2.50 inches per hour (a once in 100 year occurrence). The maximum rainfall rate brought 1.55 inches in only 30 minutes. Earlier that week the Twin Cities had received over 4 inches of rainfall and soils were saturated. Needless, to say most of the Metro Area landscape experienced flash flooding that night.

Dew points remained in the low to mid 70s F during the storm, while air temperatures fell from the low 90s into the low 70s F. Flood waters closed many roads and much of the Interstate Highway system around the Twin Cities. Thousands of basements were flooded, and some roofs collapsed. Storm sewers spouted like geysers, leaving manhole covers scattered on roads and sidewalks. This storm combined with other thunderstorm events during that month produced the wettest month in history for most climate observers in the Twin Cities Metro area. July 1987 record total rainfall included.

MSP International Airport 17.90" Edina 17.91" Richfield 17.44"
Fridley 15.33" Chaska 14.67" Brooklyn Park 14.60"
Stillwater 14.04" Mounds View 12.66" Rosemount 12.08"

In fact for the Twin Cities the 1987 total annual precipitation was about 32 inches.....nearly 56 percent of that fell in one month (July) and over 30 percent of that annual total fell in six hours.

Weekly Weather potpourri

Because much of Indiana is in extreme drought, the first ever mandatory water restrictions were put into place by the Indianapolis Metro Area. Stream and river flows are extremely low around the state of Indiana as well.

Earlier this month NASA scientists analyzed imagery data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on board the Terra satellite and found that it accurately depicted the drought which has encompassed much of the USA. Minnesota looks relatively lush compared to much of the rest of the nation. You can view the image and read the discussion here.

The forecast for the British Open Golf Tournament at Royal Lytham this weekend is for somewhat unsettled weather, with occasional showers and perhaps gusty winds at times. Conditions may be especially challenging for the world's best golfers.

The NOAA Storm Prediction Center has received only three reports of tornadoes far this month, unusually low for July. However with drought so widespread across the mid-section of the nation this might be expected.

MPR Listener Question

Can you please explain the difference between relative humidity and dewpoint one more time?

Answer: Sure. Relative humidity, expressed as a percentage, is a measure of the relative content of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum amount it could hold at a given air temperature. During the summer months daytime relative humidity commonly varies from 35 to 60 percent. Humans can tolerate a wide range in relative humidity as long as the temperature ranges between 35 and 75 degrees F. Dew point, measured in degrees F, is the temperature at which the water vapor content of the air is at saturation (100 percent relative humidity) and the vapor would condense to droplets. Generally when dewpoints are above 65 degrees F in the summer we start to feel uncomfortable, and when they are above 70 degrees F everyone is uncomfortable regardless of the air temperature and relative humidity. More often than not in the summertime when dewpoints are above 70 degrees F the National Weather Service has to issue a Heat Advisory because the high water vapor content of the air makes a temperature of 85-95 degrees F feel several degrees higher (translated to a Heat Index Value) and effects our own thermoregulation, not letting us easily dissipate our own body heat. The fact is in the summertime dewpoint relates more to our comfort and health, than relative humidity does. At an air temperature of 95 degrees F, with a dewpoint of 78 degrees F, the relative humidity is only 58 percent (not bad for human comfort), but the Heat Index is 111 degrees F (really bad for human comfort and health).

Twin Cities Almanac for July 20th

The average MSP high temperature for this date is 83 degrees F (plus or minus 7 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 63 degrees F (plus or minus 6 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for July 20th

MSP weather records for this date include: highest daily maximum temperature of 102 degrees F in 1901; lowest daily maximum temperature of 62 degrees F in 1912; lowest daily minimum temperature of 51 F in 1950; highest daily minimum temperature of 80 F in 2011; and record precipitation of 2.75 inches in 1987.
 
Average dew point for July 20th is 62 degrees F, with a maximum of 80 degrees F in 2002 and a minimum of 42 degrees F in 1947.

All-time state records for July 20th

The state record high temperature for this date is 110 degrees F at New London (Kandiyohi County) in 1901. The state record low temperature for this date is 30 degrees F at Fort Ripley (Crow Wing County) in 1871. State record precipitation for this date is 10.75 inches at Beaulieu (Mahnomen County) in 1909; and no snowfall has been reported on this date.

Past Weather Features:

Widespread frost visited central Minnesota over July 20-21, 1871. The observer at Fort Ripley reported consecutive morning low temperatures of 30 degrees F and 34 degrees F.
July 20, 1901 was the middle of a 7 day Heat Wave with temperatures in the 90s F all the way into the Iron Range. Over 30 Minnesota communities reported afternoon highs of 100 degrees F or higher. The overnight low at St Cloud never fell below 80 F. The Heat Wave broke on July 26th as temperatures fell into the 70s and 80s F.

One of the heaviest thunderstorms to cross northern Minnesota occurred over July 19-20, 1909. It brought over 11 inches to Bagley and Beaulieu, and nearly 9 inches to Fosston. Walker reported nearly 6 inches, while Park Rapids had 4.33 inches. Some farm fields were underwater for days.
A 5 day Heat Wave gripped Minnesota over July 17-21, 1932. Over a dozen communities reported temperatures of 100 degrees F or higher. Crops wilted and dry soil below around with the wind. Milan reported an overnight low of 81 degrees F on the 20th.

Last year, July 17-20, 2011, brought a Heat Wave to Minnesota with Heat Index values ranging from 105 F to 130 F. These were driven by high dewpoints as the Twin Cities recorded a temperature of 96 degrees F on the 20th with a dewpoint of 76 degrees F, producing a Heat Index of 110 F. The Heat Wave broke as temperatures fell off into the 80s on July 21st. But, July of 2011 was the 5th warmest in Minnesota history.

Outlook

Continued warmer than normal temperatures over the weekend and into next week. Slight chances for showers and thunderstorms Saturday and Sunday, but widely scattered. Another chance for showers by Wednesday next week.

Friday, July 13, 2012

Warmest first 10 days of July

Warmest first 10 days of July

For the Twin Cities, and perhaps a few other climate stations, the first ten days of July 2012 have been the warmest in history based on mean temperature values. Seven of the first ten days brought daytime temperatures of 90 F or greater (two days were over 100 F), and on five nights the temperature remained above the 70 degrees F mark. These values produced a mean temperature of 82.7 degrees F, or 9 degrees F warmer than normal. The following is a list of the top ten warmest first ten days of July in the Twin Cities area going back to 1871:

1. 82.7 F in 2012
2. 82.4 F in 1948
3. 82.2 F in 1936
4. 81.2 F in 1989
5. 81.2 F in 1949
6. 80.8 F in 1937
7. 80.0 F in 1974
8. 79.2 F in 2002
9. 79.1 F in 2011
10. 79.0 F in 1988

The warmth, combined with the relative absence of significant rainfall has produced stress on some crops, as well as other landscape vegetation. Those with irrigation have been applying water to keep up with crop demands and many homeowners have been watering more than usual. Despite some widespread showers across the state early Friday morning (July 13) these trends of warmth and dryness are expected to continue for most of the month of July. A few who benefited from significant rainfall on Friday morning included: Warroad (1.18 inches), Stillwater (1.60 inches), Lake Elmo (1.63 inches), and Spring Grove (2.95 inches).

Drought expands

Though April and May surplus rainfall brought alleviation of drought across much of southern Minnesota, a deficiency in rainfall since June 1st has brought a return of moderate drought to many areas. Places like Lamberton, Pipestone, Windom, Worthington, Preston, Rushford, and Spring Valley have only seen less than half of normal rainfall since June 1st and crops are showing some signs of stress. This week these places were put in a moderate drought status by the U.S. Drought Monitor, while northwestern Minnesota counties remained in a moderate drought status where they have been the past several weeks. This is worrisome, though Minnesota is not as bad off as many parts of IA, IL, IN, OH, and MO where severe or extreme drought occupies a large share of the landscape. In fact nearly 56 percent of the USA land area is in moderate drought or worse, the highest percentage measured in the past 12 years. USDA Secretary Tom Vilsack declared 1016 counties in 26 states to be drought disasters this week based on the designation of "severe drought" by the weekly US Drought Monitor for eight weeks or longer. USDA also cut the estimate for USA corn production this year by 12 percent because of drought and heat stress that has already occurred. You can examine more geographic aspects of drought at the Drought Monitor web site and the USDA blog.

Weekly Weather potpourri

NOAA's National Hurricane Center was monitoring the development of Tropical Storm Fabio off the west coast of Mexico in the Eastern Pacific Ocean this week. It is expected to strengthen into a hurricane over the weekend and perhaps bring a rainfall threat to Baja California next week.

On southern Japan's Kyushu a slow moving frontal system brought record-setting rainfall this week (up to 20 inches in places) to some places causing mudslides, road closures and widespread flooding. Some observers reported rainfall intensity of up to 4 inches per hour. Unfortunately more rainfall is expected over the same area this weekend.

The United Kingdom Meteorological Office this week offers a synopsis of the research on climate change and extreme weather events and episodes. They note that the incidence of heat wave episodes has been inflated by climate change, while the incidence of extreme cold events has been diminished.

NOAA reported this week that strong thunderstorms over Sierra Leone and Nigeria in West Africa brought flash flooding, causing some damages and fatalities. A boat off the coast of Sierra Leone overturned in one of the strong storms and it was reported that at least 30 people drowned. Rainfalls of 3-4 inches were common and a second consecutive week of thunderstorm rainfalls was expected to begin this weekend.

Environment Canada reported some record warm highs and lows in Manitoba this week. At Winnipeg the high on Wednesday (July 11) was 94 degrees F with a warm low of 69 degrees F, and a dewpoint of 71 degrees F, producing a Heat Index of 101 degrees F. Further north, at Churchill (nearly 59 degrees N latitude) along the southwestern shore of Hudson Bay it reached 89 degrees F with an overnight low of 63 degrees F, and a dewpoint of 68 degrees F (Heat Index reached 93 F).

MPR listener question


Thanks to NOAA's ThreadEx Project (threaded extremes using the Army Signal Corps data), the National Weather Service official climate record for the Twin Cities starts in 1871 for daily precipitation, and 1872 for daily high and low temperatures. My question: how many record daily climate values (high and low temperatures, and precipitation) that still stand today were established during that first year of observation (1871 and 1872), over 140 years ago?

Answer: Good question. To the best of my knowledge there are still two daily precipitation records from 1871 (0.85 inches on Jan 23 and 1.28 inches on Apr 19); there are four daily low temperature records from 1872 (-13 F on Nov 27, -27 F on Dec 23, -31 F on Dec 24, and -24 F on Dec 27); and there are two cold maximum daily temperature records from 1872 (-1 F on Nov 28 and -10 on Dec 21). In fact the week leading up to Christmas that year was the coldest in history with a mean daily temperature of -18 degrees F over December 18-24, 1872. So in total there are still 8 daily climate records in the Twin Cities that have survived from 1871-1872.

Twin Cities Almanac for July 13th

The average MSP high temperature for this date is 83 degrees F (plus or minus 8 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 63 degrees F (plus or minus 6 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for July 13th

MSP weather records for this date include: highest daily maximum temperature of 105 degrees F in 1936; lowest daily maximum temperature of 65 degrees F in 1975; lowest daily minimum temperature of 50 F in 1926 and 1990; highest daily minimum temperature of 86 F in 1936; and record precipitation of 2.03 inches in 1919.
 
Average dew point for July 13th is 60 degrees F, with a maximum of 80 degrees F in 1995 and a minimum of 40 degrees F in 1926.

All-time state records for July 13th

The state record high temperature for this date is 111 degrees F at Minnesota City (Winona County) in 1995. The state record low temperature for this date is 32 degrees F at Sawbill Camp (Cook County) in 1940 and at Brimson (St Louis County) in 1990. State record precipitation for this date is 5.02 inches at Indus (Koochiching County) in 1999; and no snowfall has been reported on this date.

Past Weather Features:

July 13, 1890 brought severe weather to parts of eastern Minnesota. About 4:30 pm an F-3 (winds 158-206 mph) tornado touched down in Anoka County and traveled 10 miles southeast through Ramsey County. It destroyed over 50 cottages on Turtle, Snail, Vadnais, and Gervais Lakes, killing 6 people and injuring 30 others. The same thunderstorm complex destroyed the town of Newport, and downburst winds overturned the excursion boat, Sea Wing, on Lake Pepin, drowning about half of its 200 occupants, the worst boating disaster in state history.

July 13-14, 1919 brought heavy thunderstorms to eastern Minnesota. Maple Plain and Minneapolis reported over 2 inches, while downtown St Paul received over 3 inches. It was the heaviest rain of that summer.

From July 6 to July 14, 1936 eight days were over 100 degrees in the Twin Cities, and the early morning low on the 13th was 86 degrees F, the highest minimum temperature ever measured in the Twin Cites. In fact seven times that month the overnight low did not drop below 80 degrees F.
July 13-14, 1970 brought heavy thunderstorms to southwestern and south-central Minnesota. Lamberton, Minnesota, Tracy, Mankato, New Ulm, and Marshall reported over 2 inches of rainfall, while Worthington and St James reported nearly 3.50 inches. Windom received 5.69 inches and reported street flooding.

About 3:00 pm on the afternoon of July 13, 1974 an F-2 tornado (winds 113-157 mph) traveled 7 miles across Ottertail County and destroyed several trailers and a machine shed near Fergus Falls. Fortunately there were no injuries or deaths attributed to this storm.
Over July 12-14, 1990 a brief cold spell visited northeastern Minnesota. Observers at Brimson, Cotton, Duluth, and Isabella reported temperatures in the 30s F. On the 13th Brimson started out at 32 degrees F and warmed up to 80 degrees F by afternoon.

On July 13, 1995 a Heat Wave brought daytime temperatures of 100 degrees or higher to 25 Minnesota communities. With dewpoints in the 70s F the Heat Index soared and ranged from 105 to 115 degrees F that day. This spell of heat was also the cause of many deaths in the city of Chicago, especially in neighborhoods without air conditioning.

Outlook

Warm under partly cloudy skies Saturday with a chance for showers in eastern Minnesota. Then chance of widely scattered showers in the north on Sunday and Monday. Mostly dry until late next week with increasing temperatures towards the weekend.

Friday, July 6, 2012

Records set or tied on July 4th

Records set or tied on July 4th

It was the warmest 4th of July in many years for much of southern and central Minnesota. Some records set or tied included:

Maximum temperature of 101 degrees F at MSP Airport
Minimum temperature of 81 degrees F at MSP Airport
77 degrees F dewpoint at MSP Airport
Minimum temperature of 80 degrees F at St Paul
Minimum temperature of 81 degrees F at Minnesota City
Minimum temperature of 79 degrees F at Marshall
Minimum temperature of 81 degrees F at La Crosse, WI
Minimum temperature of 74 degrees F at Fargo, ND

Maximum temperature of 103 degrees F at La Crosse, WI
Maximum temperature of 97 degrees F at St Cloud
Maximum temperature of 100 degrees F at Theilman, MN
Maximum temperature of 98 degrees F at Eau Claire, WI

Heat Index values ranged from 102 to 118 degrees F around the state on July 4th as well, perhaps the highest in history for the date in some places.

Some of the heat lingered overnight through July 5th with record warm minimum temperature of 78 degrees F at Hutchinson and Red Wing Dam, 79 degrees F at MSP Airport. La Crosse, WI also set a record low temperature value with 79 degrees F, and Rochester tied the record warmest low temperature with a reading of 73 degrees F. MSP Airport was also reporting a potential record warm minimum temperature on Friday morning (July 6th) with a reading of 78 degrees F, but that may not hold up until midnight.

Summer of 2012 is building a legacy of heat

July is continuing a 9-month trend of above normal temperatures in Minnesota. In the Twin Cities Metro Area we have already seen 16 days with daytime highs of 90 degrees F or greater, and 8 nights when the temperature never fell below 70 degrees F. On average (1981-2010) the Twin Cities records 13 days each year with daytime highs of 90 degrees F or greater, and 11 nights when the nighttime temperature does not fall below 70 degrees F. Temperatures are expected to cool next week, but still average somewhat above normal. Lower dewpoints will help freshen the air.

July 4th brings more thunderstorms in the north

Though much of southern Minnesota was dominated by heat on July 4th, many northern Minnesota communities reported strong thunderstorms, with heavy rain and high winds. This was the second episode of high winds and thunderstorm rains during the week as many northern Minnesota counties also reported them on July 2nd. The July 4th winds near Brainerd were measured at 58 mph, and near Bemidji wind gusts peaked at 60 mph. Some power lines were knocked down, and some trees damaged. Among those reporting heavier doses of rainfall were Brainerd 0.75 inches, Waskish 1.00 inches, Hallock 1.14 inches, Isle 1.27 inches, Northome 1.82 inches, Kabetogama 1.85 inches, and Bruno (Pine County) 2.45 inches. The last number was a record July 4th rainfall at Bruno.

Yet more thunderstorms crossed northern Minnesota early on July 6th (Fri) depositing from 1 to 2 inches of new rainfall in places. In fact the first week of July was rather wet for some northern observers with 2 inches or more reported from Isabella, Gull Lake, Kabetogama, Brainerd, Mora, Onamia, Moose Lake, and Sandy Lake. Much of the rest of the state suffered from heat and lack of rainfall through the first week of the month.

Extreme monthly rainfall totals back to back at Windom

Windom is located in Cottonwood County of southwestern Minnesota. May of 2012 was their wettest in history with 10.90 inches of rainfall. Heavy thunderstorms delivered over 1.50 inches on four separate days. Then June, 2012 was their driest in history, with only 8 rainy days, totaling 0.75 inches for the month.

Weekly Weather potpourri

The United Kingdom Meteorological Office reports that June of 2012 was the wettest on record country-wide, with average monthly rainfall close to 6 inches. There were many days with prolonged rainfall and the month was characterized by a lack of sunshine. They further note that the period from April through June was also the wettest historically.

It has been a busy summer for NOAA IMETs. These incident meteorologists are deployed to areas where local forecasts are needed in support of coping with hazardous situations that pose a threat to public safety. Wildfires in the western states (MT, UT, and CO) have already consumed nearly 800,000 acres this summer and NOAA has dispatched a number of IMETS to help firefighters by delivering timely weather forecast information. You can read more about the work of the IMETS at the NOAA web site.

Severe thunderstorms and even a tornado were reported from Canada this week. A tornado touched down on Tuesday (July 3rd) in Didsbury, north of Calgary, Alberta. It damaged buildings in the area. In addition strong thunderstorms brought heavy rainfall to southern parts of Saskatchewan and southern Manitoba. Moose Jaw reported nearly 2 inches from a thunderstorm rain earlier this week.

NOAA reported this week that St Louis, MO has recorded 8 consecutive days with temperature at or above 100 degrees F. This is the most since July of 1936. Atlanta, GA has reported 4 new high temperature records this week as well. The heat has combined with lack of rainfall to produce further drought in states like IL, IN, OH, KY, MO, and AK.

MPR listener question

I have had my air conditioning on continuously since June 27th. Generally I don't open my windows to air out the house until the temperature falls to 60 degrees F or lower at night. So what are my prospects for airing out the house this month?

Answer: Hmmm......I don't see an overnight low of 60 degrees F or cooler in the Twin Cities, at least through mid-July. We usually get about 8-9 nights during July when the temperature falls that low, but this month is tracking to be very much warmer than normal. Perhaps you could open the windows for a couple of hours in the early morning this weekend when temperatures are expected to be in the mid-60s F.

Twin Cities Almanac for July 6th

The average MSP high temperature for this date is 83 degrees F (plus or minus 8 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 63 degrees F (plus or minus 6 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for July 6th

MSP weather records for this date include: highest daily maximum temperature of 104 degrees F in 1936; lowest daily maximum temperature of 60 degrees F in 1972; lowest daily minimum temperature of 49 F in 1875 and 1942; highest daily minimum temperature of 77 F in 1988; and record precipitation of 2.32 inches in 1877.
 
Average dew point for July 6th is 60 degrees F, with a maximum of 77 degrees F in 1928 and a minimum of 36 degrees F in 1883.

All-time state records for July 6th

The state record high temperature for this date is 114 degrees F at Moorhead (Clay County) in 1936. The state record low temperature for this date is 30 degrees F at Cotton (St Louis County) in 1969. State record precipitation for this date is 5.30 inches at Minnesota City (Winona County) in 1978; and no snowfall has been reported on this date.

Past Weather Features:

July 6, 1936 was arguably the hottest day in Minnesota history as 3 dozen Minnesota communities reported daytime highs of 100 degrees F or greater. Many set all-time high temperature records for any date, including Moorhead with a reading of 114 degrees F. The 1936 July Heat Wave was especially brutal with little respite. Over 900 Minnesotans lost their lives due to the heat.

July 5-6, 1943 brought strong thunderstorms and flash floods to many southern Minnesota communities. Theilman received 4.65 inches and Zumbrota 5.28 inches causing the Zumbro River to reach flood stage. St Peter reported 5.46 inches and Albert Lea 6.25 inches. Many basements were flood and roads closed in those areas.

A Heat Wave prevailed from July 2-10, 1948 as fourteen Minnesota communities reported temperatures of 100 degrees F or higher. For many areas the Heat Wave was made especially difficult because it did not cool off at night. Most temperatures remained in the 70s F.

July 5-6, 1978 brought one of the worst flash floods to Rochester, MN. Evening thunderstorms on Wednesday, the 5th, carried over into the early morning hours of Thursday, the 6th. Many observers in southeastern Minnesota reported over 2 inches or rainfall. Spring Grove received 4.58 inches, while Minnesota City reported 5.30 inches. Rochester reported a whopping 6.74 inches. The storm caused the Zumbro River to exceed its banks and flood many sections of the city, especially the southern neighborhoods and the northeast. Five people were drowned and many roads and bridges washed out. Over 80 percent of the city was without power, and the sewage treatment plant was overwhelmed with flood waters. This flood, and a second one later in the summer, served as motivation for flood mitigation work on the Zumbro River in later years.

July 4-8, 1988 brought another Heat Wave to Minnesota with 40 communities reporting daytime highs of 100 degrees F or greater. This Heat Wave in combination with drought dealt a severe blow to Minnesota crops.

July 6, 1997 was a cold morning in northern counties as 13 observers reported temperatures in the 30s F. Both Embarrass and Tower reported mid-summer frost with readings of 32 degrees F.

Outlook

Cooler temperatures with a chance for scattered showers and thunderstorms on Saturday and Sunday. Then drier for several days with near seasonal average temperatures prevailing across the state.
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