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Extension > Mark Seeley's WeatherTalk > 2017

Friday, November 17, 2017

Lack of sunshine in November

Lack of sunshine in November:


Many citizens around the state have remarked about the lack of sunshine so far this month. Indeed the data show emphatically the absence of sun has been quite pronounced. Mean cloudiness for the first half of the month ranges from 7 tenths to 8 tenths of the sky across most of the state and some climate stations have reported 9 days of complete cloud cover, while others have reported 8 days with fog.

If we examine historical climate statistics, November is traditionally the cloudiest month of the year, averaging nearly 6 tenths cloud cover of the sky on a daily basis. This is fully 25 to 35 percent more cloud cover than any other month. In terms of actual solar radiation (both direct and diffuse) the amount reaching the Minnesota landscape during November is approximately half of what it is in the month of July, and when compared with to the month with the next least amount of solar radiation (December) it is still about 8 percent less (a result of the low sun angle and shorter day length).

It is no wonder that November traditionally marks the annual onset of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), sometimes called winter depression, winter blues, or seasonal depression. All of these terms refer to a mood disorder. The reduction in light is so pronounced in November across Minnesota, that many citizens turn to light therapy or other remedies to deal with it. In addition for some citizens the lack of light in November has a pronounced effect on their internal circadian rhythms so that the very long nights provoke earlier bedtimes or later awakening in the morning.


New Seasonal Climate Outlook:



The new seasonal climate outlooks were released by the NOAA Climate Prediction Center on Thursday, November 16th. They are weighted on the occurrence of a mild La Nina episode (cooler than normal waters in the equatorial Pacific Ocean prevailing throughout the Northern Hemisphere winter) and favor a cooler and wetter December-February period for Minnesota and the Dakotas. This by no means implies a winter similar to what we had four years ago (2013-2014), but obviously we might expect more below normal temperatures and perhaps more snowfall this winter across the state. It is much more uncertain if a cool, wet weather pattern will persist into the early spring months in 2018.

Weekly Weather Potpourri:


NOAAscientists report this week that portions of India and Pakistan have been plagued by persistent smog during November, fouling the air and make it quite unhealthy. Extreme levels of fine particulate matter showed up in some measurements taken there, producing a very poor air quality index.


A new study by scientists from the NASA-Jet Propulsion Laboratory finds that melting ice across the Northern Hemisphere, most significantly the Greenland Ice Sheet, will have variable effects on major coastal cities. The different regions of ice as they melt will translate to variable changes in sea level.


Congratulations to the clergy, faculty, and staff of St John’s University in Collegeville, MN for their recent award and recognition from the NOAA-National Weather Service. They have contributed 125 years of continuous daily weather observations to the central Minnesota climate data base, an enviable record which has allowed residents and state agencies to better understand climate behavior in that part of the state. Their dedication and outstanding service are justly commended.


The web site Carbon Brief announced a new online interactive map which examines the distribution of extreme weather events across the globe and according to case studies to what degree each of those weather events was related to climate change. The map covers almost every type of weather that has been studied by scientists.

MPR listener question:


My wife and I recently moved to the Twin Cities from Rome, Georgia where we used to always grill our turkey outside for Thanksgiving. She won’t let me do it if the temperature is below 40 degrees F because it takes too long. How often is the temperature on Thanksgiving below 40 degrees F on Thanksgiving in the Twin Cities?

Answer:


Let me put it this way, since 1872 a period of 145 years the Twin Cities have recorded a daytime temperature of 40 degrees F or higher only 28 percent of the time, most recently in 2015. That means that 72 percent of the time it is colder than 40 degrees F, so doing any outdoor grilling of turkey might be a bit of a challenge.

Twin Cities Almanac for November 17th:


The average MSP high temperature for this date is 40 degrees F (plus or minus 12 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 26 degrees F (plus or minus 10 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for November 17th:

MSP records for this date include: highest daily maximum temperature of 71 degrees F in 1953; lowest daily maximum temperature of 12 degrees F in 1880; lowest daily minimum temperature of -5 degrees F in 1880; highest daily minimum temperature of 49 degrees F in 2015; record precipitation of 1.67 inches in 1915. Record snowfall on this date is 9.0 inches in 1886.

Average dew point for November 17th is 26°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 58°F in 1958; and the minimum dew point on this date is -14°F in 1959.

All-time state records for November 17th:


The all-time state high temperature for today's date is 76 degrees F at Canby (Yellow Medicine County) in 2001; the all-time state low for today's date is -19 degrees F at Hallock (Kittson County) in 1914. The all-time state record precipitation for this date is 3.21 inches at Tower (St Louis County) in 1996. Record snowfall is 15.0 inches at Roseau (Roseau County) in 1996.

Past Weather Features:


The coldest ever November 17th on a statewide basis was in 1914 as an Arctic High Pressure system rested over the state. It brought subzero temperature readings to 40 Minnesota communities, and even the daytime maximum temperature at Hallock never rose above 9°F.


Probably the warmest November 17th in state history was in 1953 when 35 communities in Minnesota reported afternoon highs of 70°F or greater. Even Grand Marais along the north shore of Lake Superior saw temperatures climb into the mid 50s F., and even the daytime maximum temperature at Hallock never rose above 9 degrees F.


A slow-moving winter storm plagued the state over November 15-17, 1996. This storm brought a mixture or rain, sleet, ice, and snow which resulted in widespread school closures and travel hazards. In southwestern Minnesota, thousands were without power for 5 days because accumulating ice brought down power lines. In northwestern Minnesota winds of 35-45 mph brought blizzard conditions, with heavy snow, and zero visibility. Many roads and highways were closed. Snow accumulations across the state ranged from 5 to 16 inches.

Outlook:


Colder than normal over the weekend, but generally sunnier skies as well. It will warm up to above normal temperatures on Monday, then cooler with a slight chance for snow on Tuesday. Moderating temperatures much of the rest of the week, and generally dry weather.

Friday, November 10, 2017

Coldest temperatures since March

  Coldest temperatures since March:


At least 35 Minnesota climate stations reported subzero low temperatures this week, the first time that has happened since the second week of last March. Celina (St Louis County) reported a low temperature of -17°F on November 10th, a new all-time state record low for this date. In addition a number of northern Minnesota communities reported new record lows on November 10th as well, including -16°F at Orr (St Louis County), -15°F at Bigfork (Itasca County County), -14°F at Embarrass, and -13°F Cotton, and Brimson. So far average November temperatures around the state are running 6 to 12 degrees F colder than normal, with several new record low temperatures reported on both November 8th and November 10th. On a statewide basis the first ten days of November have been the coldest since 1995.


A distinct change in the temperature pattern for the month is coming next week, as temperatures are expected to rise to above normal values over Tuesday through Friday. Perhaps this is our chance to catch-up on outdoor chores!

January-October 2017 USA Climate Trending Warm and Wet:


NOAA announced this week that the first 10 months of 2017 have been the 3rd warmest in history across the USA (for data back to 1895). They also noted that the January-October period for the nation as a whole was the 2nd wettest in history as well. For Minnesota the rankings are more modest. The first 10 months of 2017 have been the 9th warmest in history, and the 31st wettest in history. This year marks the 6th consecutive wetter than normal year across Minnesota, and the 12th in the last 14 years.

Lake Superior Storm Festival:


For those who like to make a trip to the north shore4 of Lake Superior during the autumn season, you might want to consider the weekend of November 10-12 in order to attend the 5th Annual Lake SuperiorStorm Festival. A variety of events will take place at Lutsen Resort and in Grand Marais. Among many other activities, I will be speaking at Lutsen Resort on Saturday, November 11th at 3pm with a program titled "A History of Great November Storms on Lake Superior."

25th Annual Kuehnast Lecture:


I have the honor of giving the 25th AnniversaryKuehnast Endowment Lecture next week on November 16th, 2pm at the McNamara Center on the University of Minnesota Minneapolis Campus. I hope to combine some science, history, and stories over the past 40 years as Extension Climatologist for the University of Minnesota. If you are interested, please come as this is a public event.

Weekly Weather Potpourri:


NOAA scientists announced this week that La Nina conditions in the equatorial Pacific Ocean now exist. There is a 65-75 percent chance that weak La Nina conditions will persist throughout the Northern Hemisphere winter and therefore have some effect on the weather patterns across North America. This could translate to colder than normal temperatures and perhaps more snow for portions of northern Minnesota.

There consecutive years of below average rainfall across portions of South Africa have caused significant drops in reservoir water supplies in many places, including Cape Town where water rationing has now begun. There is hope that the November-December period, corresponding to the Southern Africa Monsoon Season, will bring more abundant rainfall and help alleviate the drought there. NOAA's Tom Di Liberto writes about this.


Yale Climate Connections reports this week that senior citizens have been provoked enough with climate science research that they are mobilizing in some states to advocate for climate actions (both adaptation and mitigation) at the local, state, and federal levels of government. Such is the case for a group of elders in Massachusetts.


Tropical Storm Haikui was churning across the South China Sea in the Western Pacific Ocean this week generating strong winds and high seas. It was expected to bring stormy conditions to portions of Vietnam later in the weekend.


The BBC News Service announced this week that an automated, real-time reporting weather station has now been installed on the United Kingdom's highest landscape, Ben Nevis, a peak that sits at 4411 feet above sea level. This is thought to be one of the windiest and snowiest spots in the United Kingdom and now thanks to some work by the scientists for the UK National Environmental Research Council there will be a constant data stream from this location, also accompanied by a real-time webcam.


A new study by researchers at UC-Irvine suggests that two to four times as many coastal glaciers associated with the Greenland Ice Sheet are at risk of accelerated melting due to climate change as previously thought. Part of this is due to the much warmer, deeper waters off the Greenland coastline that more rapidly melt the bottom of glaciers that extend out into the sea.



MPR listener question:


Just got back from an autumn vacation and I am wondering how much longer I might be able to plant daffodils, tulips, and crocus. I usually have planted the bulbs in my garden by this time of year and know I need to do it well before the soils freeze up.

Answer:


You still have some time to plant bulbs, but I would not wait any longer. With the cold start to November soil temperatures around the state have cooled into the mid 30s F to low 40s F already. The soil temperatures at a 4 inch depth ranged from 36°F to 42°F across southern and central Minnesota this week. A warming trend will begin this weekend and carry on most of next week, so soil temperatures should remain well above freezing, in the 30s and 40s F for at least another 10 days or so.


Twin Cities Almanac for November 10th:


The average MSP high temperature for this date is 45 degrees F (plus or minus 10 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 29 degrees F (plus or minus 9 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for November 10th:

MSP records for this date include: highest daily maximum temperature of 69 degrees F in 2012; lowest daily maximum temperature of 22 degrees F in 1945; lowest daily minimum temperature of 3 degrees F in 1986; highest daily minimum temperature of 52 degrees F in 1909; record precipitation of 1.36 inches in 1915. Record snowfall on this date is 5.0 inches in 1896.

Average dew point for November 10th is 26°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 56°F in 2012; and the minimum dew point on this date is 2°F in 1991.

All-time state records for November 10th:

The all-time state high temperature for today's date is 78 degrees F at Winona Dam (Winona County) in 1999; the all-time state low for today's date is -15 degrees F at Big Falls (Koochiching County) in 1933. The all-time state record precipitation for this date is 2.80 inches at Minnesota City (Winona County) in 1975. Record snowfall is 12.4 inches at Moorhead (Clay County) in 1919.

Past Weather Features:


A slow-moving and massive winter storm crossed the state over November 9-10, 1896 leaving a swath of heavy snow across southern and western counties. Many areas of the state reported 8-12 inches of snow. Fairmont and Albert Lea reported over 13 inches. Farmers trying to finish up field work were plagued by many snow storms that much. Many areas of the state reported 20-30 inches of snow in total for November of 1896.

Probably the coldest November 10 in state history occurred in 1933, as an Arctic High Pressure system descended on the state bringing subzero temperature readings to 16 locations. Both Big Falls and Mizpah (both in Koochiching County) reported lows of -15 degrees F. The temperature never rose above 20 degrees F at Fosston (Polk County) that day.

A hurricane-strength November storm over Lake Superior on November 10, 1975 sank the Edmund Fitzgerald, with a loss of 29 lives. The storm produced rain, ice, and snow, with gale force winds and extremely large waves.

Some Minnesota citizens took the day off work to play golf on Wednesday, November 10, 1999. It was sunny and warm with over 40 communities reporting afternoon high temperatures from the low to upper 70s F. The temperature never fell below 50 degrees F at Winona and reached a high of 78 degrees F.

Outlook:


Warming up this weekend with a chance for mixed precipitation in southern sections on Saturday and snow flurries in the north. A chance of freezing drizzle in some southern counties on Saturday night. Partly cloudy on Sunday, then warmer yet on Monday through Thursday of next week, with above normal temperatures and a chance for showers on Tuesday and Thursday.
















Friday, November 3, 2017

October Climate Summary

October Climate Summary:


Despite the snow and cold that prevailed during the last days of the month, average October temperatures around the state generally ranged from 1 to 4 degrees F above normal (average). The extremes for the month were 81 degrees F on October 20th at several locations, and just 13 degrees F at Browns Valley (Traverse County) on October 29th. October was the 8th month of the year with above normal temperatures (only May and August have been cooler than normal this year). Minnesota did not report the nation's lowest temperature even once during the month. Within the statewide climate network 20 locations reported new daily high temperature records on at least one date; while 32 locations reported new daily warm low temperature records on at least one date.

On a statewide basis October of 2017 was the 15th wettest in state history, with most observers reporting from 3 to 5 inches of precipitation. Several southern Minnesota climate stations reported their wettest October in history, including: 7.87 inches at Spring Grove (Houston County); 7.76 inches at Caledonia (Houston County); 7.37 inches at La Crescent (Winona County); 7.07 inches at Hokah (Houston County); 6.83 inches at Worhtington (Nobles County); and 6.66 inches at Hutchinson (McLeod County). With the statewide climate network 70 locations reported at least one new daily precipitation record set during the month.

Many areas of the state received measurable snowfall over October 27-28. In northeastern Minnesota Isabella, Duluth, Chisholm, and Wolf Ridge reported over 10 inches of snow from that storm. In fact the Duluth Airport reported 10.6 inches of snowfall on October 27th which was a new all-time state record for the date, surpassing the 7.7 inches reported at Two Harbors on October 27, 2010.

The month was also noteworthy for windiness. Many places in the state reported wind gusts of 30 mph on 12 days or more. Very large waves were seen on parts of Lake Superior.

Soybean harvest all but wrapped up across the state during the month of October, but corn harvest remained about two weeks behind normal and over half of the acreage was left to be harvested.

Lake Superior Storm Festival:


For those who like to make a trip to the north shore of Lake Superior during the autumn season, you might want to consider the weekend of November 10-12 in order to attend the 5th Annual Lake Superior Storm Festival. A variety of events will take place at Lutsen Resort and in Grand Marais. Among many other activities, I will be speaking at Lutsen Resort on Saturday, November 11th at 3pm with a program titled "A History of Great November Storms on Lake Superior." For more information you can go to the Storm Festival web site.

Weekly Weather Potpourri:


This week NOAA featured an article about the very limited ozone hole observed over Antarctica this year. The smaller size of the ozone hole (smallest in 29 years of satellite monitoring) was attributed to the instability and warmer temperatures in the stratosphere that minimized the formation of high-altitude clouds. You can read more at the NOAA News Service web site.


In other news this week NOAA announced that in collaboration with the U.S. Marine Corps they were able to install two short-range Doppler radar systems in Puerto Rico to replace those damaged by Hurricane Maria. So the forecast operations in Puerto Rico have returned to near normal conditions for the first time since September 20th.


The Climate Literacy and Energy AwarenessNetwork (Clean) announced that they are starting a series of webinars about their work to build a community more educated on climate change and energy issues. Their first seminar will be on November 9th when they will cover educational resources available for the study of climate and energy. This may ve very useful for school science teachers.


IPCC Chair Hoesung Lee provided an interview recently to discuss strategies for curbing climate change. A brief description of this interview was provided in AGU’s Earth and Space Science News this week and makes for an interesting read.


Typhoon Damrey was moving west across the South China Sea this week towards Vietnam. It is expected to strengthen and bring heavy rain and wind to that country over the coming weekend.

MPR listener question:

I was raised in Bloomington, MN and my mother always told me that after I was born (Nov 13, 1947) it snowed everyday for the rest of the month. I always believed her, but as I have now lived nearly 70 years in the Twin Cities I have never experienced a month like that. Can you tell me if this really happened?

Answer:


Indeed, it nearly did. In November of 1947 it snowed at least a trace every day from November 14 to November 30 except for the 29th. In fact it snowed on 21 days that month, something that really doesn't happen much anymore during anytime of the winter.

Twin Cities Almanac for November 3rd:


The average MSP high temperature for this date is 49 degrees F (plus or minus 11 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 33 degrees F (plus or minus 8 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for November 3rd:

MSP records for this date include: highest daily maximum temperature of 74 degrees F in 1978 and 2008; lowest daily maximum temperature of 18 degrees F in 1991; lowest daily minimum temperature of 8 degrees F in 1991; highest daily minimum temperature of 55 degrees F in 1956; record precipitation of 0.53 inches in 1970. Record snowfall on this date is 4.2 inches in 1951.

Average dew point for November 3rd is 30°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 60°F in 1987; and the minimum dew point on this date is 2°F in 1991.

All-time state records for November 3rd:

The all-time state high temperature for today's date is 82 degrees F at Montevideo (Chippewa County) in 1909; the all-time state low for today's date is -8 degrees F at Park Rapids (Hubbard County) in 1951. The all-time state record precipitation for this date is 2.62 inches at International Falls (Koochiching County) in 1919. Record snowfall is 26.0 inches at Onamia Ranger Station (Mille Lacs County) in 1991.

Past Weather Features:


November 2-3, 1919 brought a winter storm to portions of central and northern Minnesota. Many climate stations reporte 3 to 9 inches of snowfall with high winds and large snow drifts. It was the start to a very snowy November that brought a total of over 20 inches of snow to many northern parts of the state. Red Lake Falls ended up reporting 35 inches of snow by the end of the month.

Following a snowy end to October, November of 1951 started out with mid-winter type temperatures. On November 3rd eleven climate stations reported morning lows that were subzero F, while even the southernmost portions of the state dipped into the mid-teens. The temperature at Ada and Hallock in the Red River Valley never rose above 15°F all day. A week later the temperatures rebounded into the 50s F.

November 3 in 1978 was the warmest in state history with nearly all areas of the state reporting afternoon high temperatures above 60 degrees F. Over 30 communities reported high temperatures of 75 degrees F or warmer and the nighttime temperature never fell below 50°F in St Paul.

A 3-day snow storm over November 2-4, 1982 brought 8 to 20 inches of heavy, wet snow to many parts of northern Minnesota. The first snowplows of the season were called out to work in portions of Lake, Cook, and St Louis Counties where snow drifts up to 5 feet blocked some county roads and highways.

Outlook:


Continued cooler than normal temperatures into the weekend with plenty of cloud cover, and a chance for rain/snow mix later on Saturday and early Sunday. Cooler yet on Monday and Tuesday with a slight chance for snow later on Monday. Then relatively dry the rest of next week with slowly warming temperatures toward next weekend.

Friday, October 27, 2017

Strong winds over the past week

Strong winds over the past week:


Since last Friday, October 20th we have seen more days with strong winds than any other period this year. These winds have been associated with a series of strong low pressure systems passing across the region. There have been frequent days with wind gusts well over 30 mph, and some days with gusts over 40 mph. In fact October 24th was a very unusual day in Rochester because the average wind speed for the entire day was over 20 mph, something that happens only about 2 percent of all days. Also on October 24th winds over 60 mph generated wave heights on Lake Superior that exceeded 20 feet on the eastern half of the lake.

The maximum winds over the past week here in Minnesota frequently gusted to over 40 mph. Those locations measuring such winds included;

MSP Airport, Moorhead, Morris, Crookston, and Marshall all reported winds to 41 mph.
Redwood Falls and Pipestone reported winds to 43 mph.
Benson reported winds to 44 mph.
Rochester reported winds to 46 mph and winds gusting to over 40 mph over several hours.
Cloquet and Duluth reported winds to 47 mph.

Further, Thursday night and Friday morning (Oct 27) brought another strong low pressure system across Minnesota and Wisconsin that produced very strong winds. Wave heights on Lake Superior ranged from 12 to 17 feet on Friday morning. Some of the strongest wind gusts included:

43 mph at Pipestone, Canby and Alexandria.

44 mph at Ortonville, Slayton, Redwood Falls, and Moorhead.

46 mph at Madison.

48 mph at Marshall. 58 mph at the Duluth Harbor.

I am reminded that the coming month of November is generally one of the two most windy months of the year climatologically (the other being April). So, these wind speeds may be even more frequent around the state in the coming month.

Lake Superior Storm Festival:


For those who like to make a trip to the north shore of Lake Superior during the autumn season, you might want to consider the weekend of November 10-12 in order to attend the 5th Annual Lake Superior Storm Festival. A variety of events will take place at Lutsen Resort and in Grand Marais. Among many other activities, I will be speaking at Lutsen Resort on Saturday, November 11th at 3pm with a program titled "A History of Great November Storms on Lake Superior."

Weekly Weather Potpourri:


In the Western Pacific Ocean Tropical Storm Saola is being monitored by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. It is expected to strengthen this weekend and move towards southern Japan, perhaps bringing strong winds, high seas, and heavy rains to Kyoto by Sunday and Monday. You can follow this storm at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center website.


This week NOAA provides an analysis of Hurricane Ophelia which earlier this month sustained itself over unusually warm North Atlantic waters and brought heavy rains and high winds to portions of Ireland. Over 300,000 residents of Ireland lost power, and winds up to 78 mph were measured at Cork. To read further analysis of this unusual storm and see satellite imagery you can find it at the NOAA Climate.gov web site.


In a paper published recently in Scientific Reports, Utah State University scientists show evidence that the recent pattern of drought in Europe, reduced drought frequency in the north and increased drought frequency in the south, matches up well with the projections of climate change models. These drought trends have been observed across European nations since 1980.


There is an interesting article in this week’s Earth andSpace Science News which describes how regional climate and weather is interconnected across space and time. The author discusses some of the “climate teleconnections” in the tropics and how they affect mid-latitude weather patterns.

MPR listener question:

How often do we get measurable snowfall during the month of October in the Twin Cities area?

Answer:

Historically, back to 1877 the data show measurable October snowfalls in the Twin Cities about 29 percent of all years, the most recent of which was 2009 (on October 10 and 12 of that year). The most snowfall in October was in 1991, on Halloween when it snowed 8.2 inches, while October of 1925 brought the most days with measurable snowfall, a total of 6 days (that was also the coldest October in Twin Cities climate history with a mean temperature over 10 degrees F cooler than normal). For today's date (Oct 27) in the Twin Cities measurable snowfall has been recorded in the following years: 1910, 1919 (record daily amount of 2.6 inches), 1925, 1959, and 1967. So today's snowfall marks only the 6th measurable amount historically on this date.

For relative comparison, at Duluth the climate record shows measurable snowfalls have occurred in 62 percent of all Octobers, while at International Falls they have occurred in 68 percent of all years. The all-time state snowfall record for the month of October is 19.4 inches at Mizpah (Koochiching County) in 1932. Baudette (Lake of the Woods County) also had 19 inches of October snowfall in 1916, while Farmington (Dakota County) had 19 inches in 1926.

Twin Cities Almanac for October 27th:


The average MSP high temperature for this date is 53 degrees F (plus or minus 11 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 36 degrees F (plus or minus 7 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for October 27th:

MSP records for this date include: highest daily maximum temperature of 74 degrees F in 1922 and 1948; lowest daily maximum temperature of 29 degrees F in 1925; lowest daily minimum temperature of 13 degrees F in 1997; highest daily minimum temperature of 50 degrees F in 1964; record precipitation of 2.22 inches in 1971. Record snowfall on this date is 2.6 inches in 1919.

Average dew point for October 27th is 35°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 60°F in 1971; and the minimum dew point on this date is 11°F in 1925.

All-time state records for October 27th:


The all-time state high temperature for today's date is 90 degrees F at Chatfield (Fillmore County) in 1927; the all-time state low for today's date is -10 degrees F at Itasca State Park (Clearwater County) in 1919. The all-time state record precipitation for this date is 4.25 inches at St Charles (Winona County) in 1900. Record snowfall is 7.7 inches at Two Harbors (Lake County) in 2010.

Past Weather Features:


An early winter storm over October 26-27 brought a mixture of rain, sleet, and snow to the state. Many parts of central and northern Minnesota reported 3-6 inches of snowfall. Following the storm, temperatures fell into the single digits.

Almost summer-like weather visited the state on October 27, 1955. Over 60 communities saw the thermometer top the 70 degrees F mark, while seven others reported afternoon highs in the 80s F. It was sunny, breezy and pleasant statewide, even 70 degrees F across portions of the Iron Range.

A strong low pressure system brought heavy rains, high winds, and thunderstorms to the state on October 27, 1971. Winds over 70 mph blew down a broadcast tower in Willmar, and damaged a drive-in movie screen in Duluth. Thunderstorms brought rains of 2 inches to 3.5 inches to parts of northern Minnesota.

Probably the coldest October 27th on a statewide basis was in 1976. Over 60 climate stations reported morning low temperatures in the single digits, while 7 northern Minnesota communities reported sub-zero temperature readings. This cold air invasion followed a winter storm that delivered 3-6 inches of snow across many parts of the state over October 24-26.

The deepest low pressure system to ever cross the state occurred with the winter storm of October 26-27, 2010. The barometric pressure fell to 28.21 inches at Bigfork (Itasca County) setting a new state record for lowest barometric pressure. This deep low brought widespread winds of 60-70 mph across the state and produced waves on Lake Superior as high as 27 feet. Many areas of northern Minnesota received 3-7 inches of snow, and heavy rain fell across most of the rest of the state.

Outlook:


Sunny, but much cooler than normal on Saturday with highs mostly in the 30s F. Warming up a bit on Sunday, with cloudier skies and a chance for rain/snow mix. Continued chance for widely scattered showers on Monday, drier on Tuesday. Another chance for showers later on Wednesday, with moderating temperatures, though remaining cooler than normal much of the week.

Friday, October 20, 2017

Weather Pattern Reversal in October

Weather Pattern Reversal in October:


After a very wet first half of October, it appears that the 2nd half will be quite dry. During the first two weeks of the month 62 daily rainfall records were set or tied within the Minnesota state climate network, and over three dozen communities reported rainfall totals ranging from 5 to 8 inches, with nearly half the days of the month bringing rain. That pattern has completely reversed itself for the second half of the month, with little precipitation in the forecast out to Halloween. Though dry, the month will continue to be warmer than normal as it was this week.

A Dry Week Helps Farmers:


After a very wet first half of October, this week's sunny, warm, and dry weather has been very helpful for farmers who have resumed harvesting corn and soybean fields. Daily temperatures have been averaging 8-12 degrees F above normal this week. Over 90 climate stations have reported daytime high temperatures in the 70s F this week. The high temperatures, bright sun, strong winds (20-30 mph), and low dew points and humidity provoked the National Weather Service to issue some Red Flag Warnings (ideal conditions for wildfires to break out) for many parts of the state this week. Some of the dew point and relative humidity readings were close to record low values at many locations, including:

On the afternoon of October 18th Roseau had a dew point of 3°F and RH of 10%; Fosston had a dew point of 9°F and RH of 15%; Baudette had a dew point of 9°F and RH of 14%; International Falls had a dew point of 12°F and RH of 16%; Moorhead had a dew point of 13°F and RH of 14%; and Appleton had a dew point of 17F and RH of 16%. For comparison on the same afternoon Phoenix, AZ reported a dew point of 30°F with an RH of 15%.

Although these conditions provoke a higher risk for wildfires, there are also favorable for field corn kernel moisture to dry down by 1 to 2 percent per day, saving farmers on drying costs before storage.

Weekly Weather Potpourri:


NOAA scientists released new season outlooks this week. The outlooks favor a somewhat wetter than normal winter (Dec-Feb) over much of Minnesota and perhaps a cooler than normal winter over northern portions of the state. The Winter Outlook is conditioned on the formation of a short-lived La Nina episode (cooler than normal temperatures in the equatorial Pacific Ocean). I might add that Minnesota has recorded only two cooler than normal winters in the last 8 years, the most recent being 2013-1014. Further over the last 20 years only 5 years have brought cooler than normal winters. The NOAA Climate Prediction Center produced a video to explain the Winter Outlook.


NOAA scientists are teaming up with leaders from the construction trades to see if some of the seasonal outlook models can provide useful tools for the timing and deployment of people and equipment doing large-scale construction projects, especially those undertaken in the winter season. One goal is to see whether or not the risk of a damaging rain, win, or Heat Wave can be priced and factored into the time-table for construction contracts in a better way. A more detailed description of this effort can be found on the NOAA Climate.Gov web site.


In the Western Pacific Ocean this week Typhoon Lan was spinning and growing in strength south of Japan. It was producing winds over 115 mph and sea wave heights of 35-40 feet. It may affect southern Japan over the weekend with high winds and heavy rains. More information can be found at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center web site.

http://www.usno.navy.mil/NOOC/nmfc-ph/RSS/jtwc/satshots/25W_201200sair.jpg

A recent study from Canada published in Environment International shows the risk of heart failure increases in the elderly during cold weather. The study showed that a significant drop in temperature over a 3-7 day period can raise the risk of heart failure among the elderly. This study was based on over 100,000 elderly people studied over the period from 2001-2011.

MPR listener question:


I see many parts of the state are forecast to reach 80 degrees F on Friday (Oct 20). How often does the daytime temperature get that high in October?

Answer:


In the Twin Cities climate record (back to 1872) a reading of at least 80 degrees F or greater has occurred with a frequency of about every two years, not all that uncommon. The last such reading in the Twin Cities record was October 11, 2015 when 85 degrees F was recorded. Readings of 85°F or higher during October are far less common in the Twin Cities climate record, occurring about once every 5 years. At Grand Rapids, MN an 80°F temperature reading in October occurs about once every three years, while at International Falls this happens about once every six years.

Twin Cities Almanac for October 20th:


The average MSP high temperature for this date is 56 degrees F (plus or minus 11 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 38 degrees F (plus or minus 9 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for October 20th:

MSP records for this date include: highest daily maximum temperature of 83 degrees F in 1953; lowest daily maximum temperature of 32 degrees F in 1930; lowest daily minimum temperature of 18 degrees F in 1960; highest daily minimum temperature of 61 degrees F in 1920; record precipitation of 2.64 inches in 1934. Record snowfall on this date is 3.0 inches in 1916.

Average dew point for October 20th is 37°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 66°F in 1920; and the minimum dew point on this date is 8°F in 1952.

All-time state records for October 20th:


The all-time state high temperature for today's date is 91 degrees F at Canby (Yellow Medicine County) in 1947; the all-time state low for today's date is -1 degrees F at Argyle (Marshall County) in 1916. The all-time state record precipitation for this date is 3.95 inches at Chaska (Carver County) in 1934. Record snowfall is 10.0 inches at Detroit Lakes (Becker County) in 1906.

Past Weather Features:


October 19-21, 1906 brought a winter storm to northern Minnesota where 4 to 10 inches of snow fell. This was one of the earliest heavy snows in state history.

A strong winter storm brought snow to most parts of the state over October 18-19, 1916. Following the storm the coldest temperatures ever reported in the state on October 20th and the earliest seasonal reading of subzero occurred. Argyle (Marshall County) reported a low of -1°F, while Angus (Polk County) and Roseau reported a reading of zero degrees F. Several other locations reported lows in the single digits. It was the start of a long, cold, and snowy season.

October 20-21 brought heavy rain to portions of Minnesota. Many climate stations reported 2 to 4 inches of rain which brought an abrupt halt to farmers field work. The rain was one of the heaviest of the Dust Bowl decade.

By far the warmest October 20th in state history was in 1947 when over 30 communities reported an afternoon high temperature of 80 degrees F or greater. Five climate stations reached the 90°F mark. In the Twin Cities even the overnight low temperature never fell below 55 degrees F that day.

October 20-21, 2002 brought some heavy snows to many parts of the state. Many observers reported 4 to 8 inches of heavy wet snow.

Outlook:


Moderating temperatures over the weekend, still above normal but not as warm as earlier in the week. There will be a chance for showers and thunderstorms Saturday, then drier, cooler, and sunnier on Sunday with some strong winds. Temperatures will continue a little above normal next week with the occasional chance for showers.






Friday, October 13, 2017

Very Wet October So Far

Very Wet October So Far:


Harvesting of corn and soybeans has been slowed or delayed due to wet weather this month. So far at least 55 climate stations have reported new daily record amounts of rainfall, mostly during the first three days of the month, and over the the sixth through the 9th. In addition many places have reported consistent rain, about every two days or so. As a result a number of climate stations, especially in southern counties have reported a total of 4 to 7 inches of rainfall and we have not reached the mid-point of October yet. Across Minnesota normal October monthly rainfall ranges from two to three inches, so many locations have already received twice the average amount.

This October rainfall pattern follows the recent trend towards wetter than normal. Sixteen of the past twenty-two Octobers in Minnesota have been wetter than normal on a statewide basis, with three among the top five wettest historically. The silver lining in all this is that for most places the soils will be recharged with moisture for next spring's crops.

Weekly Weather Potpourri:


NOAA scientists reported recently that the month of September was generally warmer and drier than normal across the nation. It was the 14th warmest in Minnesota state history back to 1895, and it overall wetter than normal but only by about a half inch of precipitation. Across the nation the first nine months of 2017 (Jan-Sep) rank as the third warmest in history, but the wettest in history as well. Many states will likely report their wettest year in history by the time we get to the end of December. Of course September of 2017 will be remembered more vividly for Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria.


NOAA scientists also released a climate assessment of the environmental conditions which have produced the highly destructive California wildfires this autumn. Last winters abundant precipitation in California helped solve drought there but ushered in a very lush and productive growing season. Then the dry, hot summer brought about high risk for autumn fires.

The United Kingdom Met Office is commemorating the 30th Anniversary of the Famous October 15-16, 1987 storm which brought 100 mph winds and much damage to the country. One of the worst ever storms to hit the United Kingdom, the winds and rain caused over 1 billion dollars in damage and 22 lives were lost. You can read more about this storm and the improvements made in forecasting by going to the Met Office web site.



In this week's Earth and Space Science News from the AGU there is an article about measuring the carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants in three different countries using satellite-based technologies. Though not as accurate as ground-based measurements, the satellites are useful in assessing seasonal variations and other attributes of these emissions.


MPR listener question:


What a wet month! I have never seen it so wet in October here in Fillmore County. What is the record amount of rainfall for the month of October in Minnesota?

Answer:


The all-time record rainfall for October in Minnesota is 11.25 inches at St Charles (Winona County) in October of 1900. The record amount for Fillmore County in October is 7.92 inches in October of 2013.


Twin Cities Almanac for October 13th:


The average MSP high temperature for this date is 60 degrees F (plus or minus 11 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 41 degrees F (plus or minus 8 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for October 13th:

MSP records for this date include: highest daily maximum temperature of 84 degrees F in 1956; lowest daily maximum temperature of 37 degrees F in 1937; lowest daily minimum temperature of 22 degrees F in 1917; highest daily minimum temperature of 62 degrees F in 1879, 1968, and 2000; record precipitation of 1.52 inches in 1890. Record snowfall on this date is 0.4 inches in 1969.

Average dew point for October 13th is 41°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 67°F in 1962; and the minimum dew point on this date is 14°F in 1937.


All-time state records for October 13th:


The all-time state high temperature for today's date is 89 degrees F at Canby (Yellow Medicine County) in 1958 and at Luverne (Rock County) in 1975; the all-time state low for today's date is 2 degrees F at Sawbill Camp (Cook County) in 1936. The all-time state record precipitation for this date is 4.71 inches at Fosston (Polk County) in 1984. Record snowfall is 7.0 inches at Warroad (Roseau County) in 2006.


Past Weather Features:


The coldest October 13th in state history occurred in 1933. Frosts occurred in all corners of the state, and the morning low temperature was record-setting, below 20 degrees F in over 30 communities around the state. Thin ice formed on ponds and shallow lakes.

An autumn season snow storm dominated the headlines in Minnesota over October 11-13, 1959. This snow temporarily halted the harvest season for many farmers and brought several inches to many parts of the state. Across southern and central areas of the state 3 to 7 inches of heavy, wet snow accumulated. Itasca State Park ended up with nearly 10 inches of snow for October of that year.

One of the warmest October 13ths in state history came in 1975 when over 20 climate stations reported a daytime high of 85 degrees F or higher. It brought a warm night too as the temperature never dropped below 60 degrees F at places like Austin and Preston.

A storm brought heavy rain, and even some snow to portions of the state over October 12-13, 1997. Many areas of southern Minnesota received 2-3 inches of rain, disrupting the harvest season and causing soil erosion on some plowed fields in southeastern counties. In the Red River Valley area 2-4 inches of snow fell.

Outlook:


Clouding up on Saturday with showers later in the day and evening, then partly cloudy with cooler than normal temperatures on Sunday. More frosts in northern counties. Drier and warmer weather for early next week with temperatures climbing to above normal values as daytime highs range from the upper 50s to upper 60s F.




Friday, September 22, 2017

A Flush of September Warmth and High Dew Points

A Flush of September Warmth and High Dew Points:


The trend toward above normal temperatures this month, which began on the 10th, continues in a big way through this weekend. Most observers now report September mean temperatures that are 2 to 4 degrees F warmer than normal, but have yet to see real extremes. This will change for Friday through Sunday as several areas of the state will see daytime highs soar into the 80s and 90s F, with nighttime lows in the 60s and 70s F. As a result, it is likely that some new daily temperature records will be set in terms of both warm daytime highs and warm nighttime lows. So far the highest temperature measured this month was 93 degrees F on the 14th at Browns Valley (Traverse County). This is likely to be surpassed.

According to the Minnesota State Climatology Office it is especially unusual to see a series of nighttime low temperatures in the 70s F so late in the month of September. In fact for the Twin Cities climate record consecutive nightly lows in the 70F during the month of September is rare indeed, having happened only in 1897, 1927, 1939, 1948, and 1955. Should nighttime lows remain in the 70s F both Friday and Saturday (Sept 22-23) it will be the latest ever such occurrence.

In addition, a significant feature of this September warm spell is the high dew points. A new daily high dew point record was set in the Twin Cities on September 21 (Thursday) this week with a reading of 70 degrees F at MSP Airport. As a result a Heat Advisory was released for many portions of Minnesota on Friday, September 22nd. Many new daily high dew point records are likely to be set on Friday and Saturday too, as dew points spike into the 70s F. Already a new record high dew point was set at 8am on Friday morning at MSP with a reading of 71 degrees F, while the record for Saturday, September 23 is 73 degrees F from 1945 and this may be threatened this weekend.

Weekly Weather Potpourri:


This week NOAA's Tom Di Liberto provides an analysis of the impacts of Hurricane Harvey on the Houston, TX area. It is an interesting article about the meteorology of the storm, but also the societal impacts.


The United Kingdom Met Office is celebrating 100 years of numerical weather forecasting this week. They trace the beginnings of their numerical weather forecasting back to the WWI era when Lewis Fry Richardson began to use spatial grids of meteorological measurements to calculate changes in forecast parameters such as temperature and moisture. What took him weeks to do back then, can be done by computers in less than one second today.


Earlier this week NASA reported that the extent of end-of-summer Arctic Sea Ice was the 8th lowest in the satellite record period going back to 1978. Arctic sea ice reached its annual minimum areal extent on September 13th, and is now starting to build again with the approach of the Northern Hemisphere winter season.

MPR listener question:


With this expected Heat Spell, what is the warmest overnight low temperature during September ever observed in Minnesota?

Answer:


In the Twin Cities climate record the warmest overnight low in the month of September was 77 degrees F on September 5, 1912. On a statewide basis the warmest September night was September 11, 1931 when the overnight low was 85 degrees F at Bird Island (Renville County). BTW that day was probably the warmest September day in Minnesota history with over 100 communities reporting afternoon highs in the 90s F and many places in western Minnesota well over 100 degrees F.

Twin Cities Almanac for September 22nd:


The average MSP high temperature for this date is 69 degrees F (plus or minus 10 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 49 degrees F (plus or minus 8 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for September 22nd:

MSP records for this date include: highest daily maximum temperature of 95 degrees F in 1936; lowest daily maximum temperature of 49 degrees F in 1913 and 1983; lowest daily minimum temperature of 26 degrees F in 1974, 2007, and 2011; highest daily minimum temperature of 71 degrees F in 1937; record precipitation of 2.80 inches in 1895. No snow has fallen on this date in the Twin Cities.

Average dew point for September 22nd is 45°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 70°F in 1903; and the minimum dew point on this date is 20°F in 1974.

All-time state records for September 22nd:


The all-time state high temperature for today's date is 101 degrees F at Ada (Norman County) in 1936; the all-time state low for today's date is 10 degrees F at Thorhult (Beltrami County) in 1974. The all-time state record precipitation for this date is 4.84 inches at Cambridge (Isanti County) in 1968. Record snowfall is 2.0 inches at Baudette (Lake of the Woods County) in 1995.


Past Weather Features:


Strong thunderstorms brought three to six inches of rain to southern and central Minnesota over September 21-22, 1895. There were also many reports of hail. Fortunately crops had matured early that year and much of the harvest had already been completed. Widespread frost followed the thunderstorms.

By far the warmest September 22 in state history was in 1931 when over 40 Minnesota communities reported daytime highs in the 90s F. At seven locations the temperature reached 100 degrees F or greater.

The coldest September 22nd in state history was in 1974 when frost occurred in every corner of the state. Over two dozen climate stations in northern and western Minnesota reported morning lows in the teens F, and at Thorhult (Beltrami County) it was a nippy 10 degrees F. The high at Brainerd only rose to 41 degrees F.

An early autumn snow storm brought measurable amounts to western and northern parts of the state over September 22, 1995. Traces of snow were reported as far south as Luverne (Rock County), while in the north an inch or two was measured with temperatures in the upper 20s and low 30s F.

Strong and persistent thunderstorms brought record-setting rains to portions of southern Minnesota over September 22-23, 2010. Most southern Minnesota counties received over 6 inches of rain and parts of Faribault County received over 11 inches. Numerous roads were closed to flash flooding, and a week later the Mississippi River rose above flood stage.

Outlook:


Warm and humid over the weekend with chances for showers and thunderstorms. Continued chance for showers through early next week, but temperatures will decline near seasonal averages. Drier toward the end of next week.

Friday, September 15, 2017

Warm-up boosts crop maturation

Warm-up boosts crop maturation:


With the cold start to the month of September many farmers were concerned about corn and soybeans not reaching maturity before the first frost. The dramatic warm-up in temperatures this week (5 consecutive days with temperatures running from 6-12 degrees F warmer than normal) this concern has been mostly alleviated. Corn has matured rapidly this week, as have soybeans. In fact the degree of warm temperatures has been so persistent statewide that it has offset the cold start to the month, and now most climate stations are reporting mean September temperatures that are warmer than normal at mid-month. In addition warmer than normal temperatures are expected to prevail across Minnesota until near the end of the month. This may not only help with crop maturation, but accelerated dry-down before harvest season begins.

Rainfall has certainly been lacking this month, but I don't think this has had much effect on crop yields. The second half of September is supposed to be wetter than the first half.

Drought still present in parts of northwestern Minnesota:


Dryness has persisted most of the 2017 growing season in portions of northwestern Minnesota (canola, wheat, and sugar beet country). More recently portions of thirteen counties in the northwest have been designated to be in moderate drought (by the U.S. Drought Monitor), while portions of Marshall, Beltrami, and Lake of the Woods Counties have been designated to be in severe drought. Since May 1st or the start of the growing season many climate stations in this part of the state have measured 30 to 40 percent less than normal rainfall. A few areas have received less than half of normal rainfall for the growing season. In these areas they are hoping for a wet autumn season to replenish depleted soil moisture supplies.


Weekly Weather Potpourri:


The Minnesota State Climatology Office has recently developed climographs (monthly graphical depictions of temperature and precipitation normals) for all climate stations in the state. These are very useful for looking a different climates within the state, and also if you are traveling around the state. You can find these graphics and data under the header Climograph Portal.


Storm Aileen (not a tropical storm but a mid-latitude cyclone) brought high winds and rains to portions of the United Kingdom this week. This intense low pressure system produced winds of 55-65 mph across portions of Cheshire, Lancashire, Derbyshire, Yorkshire, and Nottingshire earlier this week. Some wind gusts close to 70 mph were reported.


Elsewhere in the East China Sea Typhoon Talim was churning with winds over 110 mph, producing wave heights of 30-35 feet. After bringing rains to parts of South Korea, it is expected to turn northeast and head towards Japan over the weekend. A second typhoon, Dokshuri, is expected to bring heavy rain to Vietnam this weekend.


A recent study from Indiana University documents that people affected by extreme weather or climate events do initially support policies to improve climate adaptation and resilience, but that response is relatively short-lived. Their longer term attitudes towards climate change are more heavily governed by their political beliefs or political party affiliations.


NOAA features an article this week on expanding malaria zones in Ethiopia as a result of warming temperatures, especially at higher elevations. This is mostly due to rising minimum temperatures rather than maximum temperatures.


AGU-EOS released an interesting paper this week about the warmer ocean temperatures and rising sea level measurements. These measurements clearly relate to global climate change, and the upward trends are substantial. Dr. John Abraham from University of St Thomas in St Paul contributed to this study.

MPR listener question:


The 91 degrees F at MSP on September 14 this week was the first reading of 90°F or higher here since July 22. How often does September bring 90 degrees F days following an August that does not bring any?

Answer:


This is rare and has happened only 8 times since 1871, the most recent year was 2011, when there were no 90°F days in August, but 3 such days in September.

MPR listener question:


Last week I heard you talk to Cathy about the September snow storms of 1912 and 1942. But, my grandmother wrote about having a snow storm interrupt the wheat harvest in Dakota County in September of 1916. Can you shed any light on that?

Answer:


Indeed, the crop harvest was later than normal in 1916 so wheat harvesting was underway in September when an early winter storm crossed the state on the 15th of September. Strong winds (>30 mph) and low temperatures pushed the wind chill into the 20s F statewide and a mixture of rain and snow fell in 18 counties, with the snow ranging from a trace to 0.3 inches. This disrupted the harvesting of all crops including wheat, corn, and potatoes. Widespread frost was reported as low temperatures ranged from 23 degrees F to 32 degrees F across half of the state. In many northern Minnesota communities the daytime high temperatures never rose above the low 40s F.

Twin Cities Almanac for September 15th:


The average MSP high temperature for this date is 72 degrees F (plus or minus 9 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 53 degrees F (plus or minus 7 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for September 8th:

MSP records for this date include: highest daily maximum temperature of 98 degrees F in 1939; lowest daily maximum temperature of 46 degrees F in 1916; lowest daily minimum temperature of 36 degrees F in 1964, 2007, and 2011; highest daily minimum temperature of 72 degrees F in 1897; record precipitation of 1.97 inches in 1997. A trace of snow fell on this date in 1916.

Average dew point for September 8th is 48°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 72°F in 1994; and the minimum dew point on this date is 19°F in 2011.

All-time state records for September 8th:

The all-time state high temperature for today's date is 100 degrees F at St Peter (Nicollet County) in 1939 and at Tracy (Lyon County) in 1955; the all-time state low for today's date is 17 degrees F at Bigfork (Itasca County) in 1964. The all-time state record precipitation for this date is 4.98 inches at Winona Dam (Winona County) in 2004. Record snowfall is 0.2 inches at Warroad (Roseau County) in 1916.

Past Weather Features:


Snow blanketed much of the state on September 15, 1916. This was one of the earliest snows ever across so much of the state landscape. Snow flurries were even observed in the Twin Cities from 10:30 am to 12:30 am, with wind chill conditions that felt like 28 degrees F.

The hottest September 15th in state history was in 1939 when over 50 climate stations reported afternoon high temperatures in the 90s F, records that still stand. St Peter, Springfield, and New Ulm hit the century mark on the thermometer. In many areas the overnight low temperature never dropped below 75 degrees F.

The coldest September 15th in state history was in 1964, when approximately 90 climate stations reported low temperatures of 32°F or colder. More than 60 communities reported morning lows in the 20s F, bringing an abrupt end to the growing season.

September 14-15 brought thunderstorms and heavy rains to parts of southern Minnesota. Many communities reported 8 to 13 inches of rain, and flash floods were declared in 13 southern Minnesota counties. There were many road and highway closures. More on this historic storm can be found at the Minnesota State Climatology Office.

Outlook:


Generally cloudy over the weekend with a chance for showers and thunderstorms on Saturday. Highs will dip below normal on Sunday. Temperatures will warm up above normal beginning on Tuesday of next week, but the daily chance for shower activity will increase as well.



Friday, September 8, 2017

September starts cool and dry

September starts cool and dry:


The month of September has begun cooler and drier than normal across the state. This helped to boost attendance over the final days of the State Fair. Temperatures for the month so far are running from 2 to 6 degrees F cooler than normal, and over 20 northern Minnesota climate stations have already reported morning lows in the 30s F. The coldest spots so far are Fosston (Polk County) with a reading of just 30 degrees F on the 6th and Crane Lake (St Louis County) with a reading of 30 degrees F on September 8th.

On Labor Day, September 4th a strong cold front crossed Minnesota during the afternoon bringing some showers and rapid temperature change. In St Cloud the temperature dropped over 21 degrees F in less than an hour during mid-afternoon, while in the Twin Cities the temperature dropped 10 degrees F in just 10 minutes during the late afternoon. Winds gusted to between 40 and 50 mph with the cold front passage. Many people at the State Fair sought shelter from the rain as well as warmer clothes.

The Galveston Hurricane of September 8, 1900:


On Saturday, September 8, 1900 between 6,000 and 8,000 people perished in Texas as a result of the landfall of the famous Galveston Hurricane. This storm is the center piece in the famous and popular book "Isaac's Storm" which documents the efforts of Dr. Isaac Cline, Director of the Galveston Weather Office in his attempts to warm residents of Galveston about the risks of this storm.

Three days following the landfall of the Galveston Hurricane, its remnant low pressure center had migrated north into portions of Missouri and Iowa, and brought thunderstorms and heavy rains to many parts of southern Minnesota. Many climate stations reported 2 to 5 inches of rain over September 11-12, and parts of Blue Earth County reported nearly 6 inches, a record amount that still stands today. Fall harvest activity was very delayed that month as a result of wet soils.

More on hurricanes and Minnesota weather can be found at the Minnesota State Climatology Office web site.

Weekly Weather Potpourri:


The NOAA National Hurricane Center is obviously having a very busy week monitoring the movements and intensity of three hurricanes: Katia in the southwestern part of the Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of eastern Mexico; Jose in the Central Atlantic Ocean just east of the Lesser Antilles; and Irma now passing between Cuba and the Bahamas. Earlier in the week NOAA announced that Irma was one of the strongest and largest hurricanes to ever form in the Atlantic Ocean. It remains a very serious threat to Florida and the Carolinas as we head into the weekend.


A new study released by the United Kingdom MetOffice in cooperation with the Woodland Trust reveals that earlier spring budburst for nine of eleven tree species is clearly related to a signal of climate change, warmer temperatures in March. Larch and Alder are two of the tree species most affected by this.


A recent study from Scientific Reports documents that ice-ocean albedo (reflectivity) feedbacks play a critical role in the variation and long term loss of Arctic Sea ice. This is a significant factor year to year in the ongoing seasonal loss of Arctic ice cover, which appears to be declining rapidly in the summer season in each passing year.

Earth and Space Science News editor Mohi Kumar was in Houston, TX during the passage of Hurricane Harvey last week and wrote a day by day account of the storm. It makes for a very interesting read and is written as an accounting by a survivor.

MPR listener question:


What has been the biggest snow storm in Minnesota during the month of September?

Answer:


There have been two large ones which caused a great deal of disruption. Both occurred a long time ago. Over September 24-25, 1912 an early winter storm delivered a mixture of sleet and snow to northern Minnesota. Observers there reported 2 to 6 inches of snow, while parts of Polk County reported up to 7 inches of snow. Over September 25-26, 1942 a storm brought a mixture of rain, sleet, and snow to many parts of the state. In many areas the total snowfall ranged from 4 to 8 inches. Roads were even plowed in Renville County following this storm.

Believe it or not both of these late September snow storms were followed by 70°F and 80°F days in early October!

MSP Local Records for September 8th:

MSP records for this date include: highest daily maximum temperature of 99 degrees F in 1931; lowest daily maximum temperature of 54 degrees F in 1929; lowest daily minimum temperature of 36 degrees F in 1883; highest daily minimum temperature of 74 degrees F in 1931; record precipitation of 1.52 inches in 1885. No snowfall has occurred on this date.

Average dew point for September 8th is 55°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 73°F in 1947; and the minimum dew point on this date is 25°F in 1995.

All-time state records for September 8th:

The all-time state high temperature for today's date is 105 degrees F at New Ulm (Brown County) in 1931; the all-time state low for today's date is 20 degrees F at Red Lake (Beltrami County) in 2000. The all-time state record precipitation for this date is 5.54 inches at Young America (Carver County) in 1991. No snow has fallen on this date.

Past Weather Features:


The warmest September 8th for Minnesota was in 1931 when over 30 communities reported afternoon temperatures of 100 degrees F or higher. In western Minnesota the overnight temperature never dipped below 76 degrees F at Milan, Canby, and Montevideo. Some people slept on their porch or on the lawn outside.

The coldest September 8th was in 1956 when 15 Minnesota climate stations reported low temperature in the 20s F, bringing an early end to the growing season.

Thunderstorms brought heavy rains to many parts of the state over September 8-9, 1991. Many climate stations reported rainfall totals of 3 to 7 inches, with many flooded roads and highways. New London in Kandiyohi County reported over 8 inches of rain.

Outlook:



Partly cloudy with a warming trend over the weekend, and generally dry weather. Continued warmer than normal temperatures through much of next week with little chance for precipitation.

Thursday, August 31, 2017

August Climate Summary

August Climate Summary:


Mean August temperature values from around the state were generally 2 to 4 degrees F cooler than normal. Only the second cooler than normal month in 2017 (May was the other). Extreme temperatures for the month ranged from 93 degrees F at Granite Falls (Yellow Medicine County) on August 1st, and just 30 degrees F at Embarrass, Brimson, and Crane Lake on the 25th. Some observers in St Louis, Lake, Cook, and Koochiching Counties reported frosts during the month. Minnesota did not report the nation's lowest on any date this month.

The most noteworthy climate attribute of August was the rainfall. Overall the statewide average rainfall was over 5 inches, ranking as the 11th wettest month of August in state history. Some western and southern communities reported their wettest August in history with total rainfall values over 10 inches. Redwood Falls topped the state network reports with over 13 inches. They reported the largest ever 1-day rainfall on August 17th in state history with a measurement of 8.12 inches. In addition over 40 climate stations in the state reported at least one new daily rainfall record during the month.

Destruction from Harvey may be the weather story of the year:


Large and slow-moving Hurricane Harvey (later Tropical Storm Harvey) brought widespread flooding and devastation to many parts of southeastern Texas last weekend and earlier this week, most especially the Houston Metropolitan Area. Many communities in Jefferson, Galveston, and Harris Counties reported over 40 inches of rain from this storm, topped by 51.88 inches in the Cedar Bayou-Mont Belvieu area of the Eastern Metro Area, a value that is the largest amount of rainfall ever measured from a Tropical Storm. Flooding issues were compounded in Beaumont, TX (pop 120,000) when there water supply pumps failed, preventing access to fresh water for all the residents there. More recently over Wednesday-Thursday Harvey brought 10 to 20 inches of rainfall to portions of western and southern Louisiana. Over the coming Labor Day weekend remnants of Harvey as a low pressure system will move northeast, not affecting Minnesota but ending up on the North Atlantic Ocean. Further coverage on Harvey can be found at the Weather Underground web site.

State Fair Weather Quiz:


The Annual Minnesota State Fair continues through Labor Day (September 4th). We had a good time on August 29th broadcasting the Annual Minnesota Weather Quiz from the MPR Booth (corner of Judson and Nelson on the fairgrounds). For those who would like to take the quiz (so far nearly 600 people have taken it), it is still available online at the MPR web site.


Weekly Weather Potpourri:


This week, the United Kingdom Met Office provided a brief climate summary of the summer season (June-August) noting that it has been very wet and warmer than usual in 2017. For Scotland it has been their 5th wettest summer historically.

Also this week NOAA's Jake Crouch presents an analysis of the climate patterns across the USA so far this year. He makes some interesting observations about severe weather and the pattern of warm and dry years versus the pattern of wet and cool years. You can read more at NOAA web site.

Following all of the attention on Hurricane and Tropical Storm Harvey this week, the NOAA National Hurricane Center is tracking Hurricane Irma in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. It is expected to strengthen to a Category 4 hurricane as it travels westward across the Atlantic Ocean towards Puerto Rico next week. This system will be closely monitored all of next week. Elsewhere in the Eastern Pacific Ocean, Tropical Storm Lidia was being monitored a may bring heavy rains and wind to portions of Mexico and Baja California over the weekend, while in the Western Pacific Ocean, Typhoon Sanvu was growing stronger and may bring rain and high seas to portions of Japan over the weekend.

With the school year starting, many science teachers are looking for engaging materials to use with their students. NOAA's Data in the Classroom Program provides some great real-time data for students to better understand atmospheric and ocean sciences. There are curricula materials on El Nino and Sea Level variations, Coral Bleaching, Ocean Acidification, and Water Quality.

A recent paper appearing in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences documents how climate change will alter the seasonality and geographic distribution of peak electricity loads across Europe. Southern portions of Europe will eventually use more electricity than northern Europe, and summer peak loads will be higher than those of winter. This is an interesting result of the disparity in climate change impacts across the European nations.

MPR listener question:

You mentioned during the State Fair broadcast of the Minnesota Weather Quiz this week that "rain begets rain" and that "drought begets drought." That sparked a conversation in our family that produced these two questions: What is the longest streak of consecutive days with measurable rainfall in the Twin Cities? Also, what is the longest streak of days with no precipitation in the Twin Cities?

Answer:

The longest stretch of consecutive days with measurable rain is from a long time ago, May 30, 1883 to June 9, 1883, 11 days. It rained at least .03 inches each day, with an 11 day total of 3.95 inches in the Twin Cities. No flooding was reported, but a lightning storm took out the telegraph lines across southern Minnesota during this interval. The most recent exceptionally long streak of consecutive days with precipitation was April 5 to April 14, 2013 (10 days) when a mixture of rain and/or snow occurred each day, totaling 6.8 inches of snow and 2.73 inches of precipitation.

The longest stretch of days when no measurable precipitation occurred was from November 15, 1943 to January 4, 1944, a period of 51 days. There were some dates in this interval when a trace of precipitation was reported. The most recent long spell of dry weather was September 26 to October 22, 2010, a period of 27 days.

Twin Cities Almanac for September 1st:


The average MSP high temperature for this date is 77 degrees F (plus or minus 9 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 59 degrees F (plus or minus 8 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for September 1st:

MSP records for this date include: highest daily maximum temperature of 97 degrees F in 1913; lowest daily maximum temperature of 59 degrees F in 1951; lowest daily minimum temperature of 36 degrees F in 1974; highest daily minimum temperature of 74 degrees F in 1937 and 1953; record precipitation of 3.29 inches in 1942. No snowfall has occurred on this date.

Average dew point for September 1st is 56F; the maximum dew point on this date is 75F in 1997; and the minimum dew point on this date is 30F in 1946.

All-time state records for September 1st:

The all-time state high temperature for today's date is 101 degrees F at Beardsley (Big Stone County) in 1913; the all-time state low for today's date is 23 degrees F at Tower (St Louis County) in 1974. The all-time state record precipitation for this date is 7.70 inches at Nett Lake (St Louis County) in 1973. No snow has fallen on this date.

Past Weather Features:


The warmest ever September 1st came in 1913 when most areas of the state saw afternoon temperatures climb into the 90s F. Five locations surpassed 100 degrees F. St Peter started the day with a cool morning of 52 degrees F, but under sunny skies warmed up to 98 degrees F by 4pm.

Very strong thunderstorms moved across the state over August 31 and September 1, 1973 bringing very heavy rains and flash flooding to portions of northern. Rainfall totals from 4 to 8 inches occurred in portions of Clay, Mahnomen, Polk, and St Louis Counties. An unusual tornado passed between Big Falls and Little Fork in Koochiching Counties, destroying many farm buildings and some mobile homes.

By far the coldest September 1st in state history was in 1974. Many parts of the state saw widespread frosts. Over 40 climate stations reported freezing temperatures in the morning, representing 23 of Minnesota's 87 counties. Frost damage to crops, both corn and soybeans, was widespread as well.

Outlook:


Mostly sunny weekend with near normal temperatures. Chance of showers later in the day in the north on Labor Day. Cooler temperatures and chance for showers on Tuesday, and continuing cooler than normal temperatures for much of next week.

Friday, August 25, 2017

Record-setting wet August for some, first frosts in the north

Record-setting wet August for some:


Over 40 climate observers across the state report over 6.5 inches of rainfall for this month, roughly twice the normal amount. With a week to go these numbers will certainly increase. For some locations it has already been a record-setting wet month. This is true for the following locations:
Redwood Falls (Redwood County) 13.03 inches Granite Falls (Yellow Medicine County) 11.09 inches
Montevideo (Chippewa County) 10.43 inches
Hawley (Clay County) 10.43 inches
Bird Island (Renville County) 10.41 inches
Vesta (Redwood County) 9.62 inches

In addition over 60 new daily rainfall records have been set this month within the Minnesota climate observation network.

First freezing temperatures this month:


On Thursday morning, August 24th, this week the first sub-freezing temperatures were reported with a 32°F reading at Isabella (Lake County), and just 30°F at Crane Lake and Embarrrass (St Louis County). At least 8 other climate stations reported morning lows in the 30s that morning. The readings of 30 degrees F at Embarrass and Crane Lake on August 24th was their first sub-freezing temperature since June 1st, while at Isabella, the 32 degrees F was the first frost since May 19th. It is not unusual to have frost at these locations during the month of August, and more temperature readings in the 30s F (such as occurred again Friday morning) are likely to occur in northern areas later this month.

State Fair time:


The Annual Minnesota State Fair will began Thursday, August 24th and runs through Labor Day, September 4th. It appears that the beginning days of the Fair will be cooler than normal temperatures, perhaps just in the 60s and 70s F. Also there are chances for repeated shower activity over the Friday through Sunday period, then drier next week. I will be at the MPR Booth (corner of Judson and Nelson on the fairgrounds) on two dates: Friday, August 25th at noon to record the TPT Almanac public affairs program with hosts Cathy Wurzer and Eric Eskola; and then again on August 29 (Tue) with host Tom Weber at 11am to broadcast the annual Minnesota Weather Quiz. Please stop by if you are at the Fair either of those days.

Weekly Weather Potpourri:


The NOAA National Hurricane Center was issuing warnings on Hurricane Harvey this week in the Gulf of Mexico. Harvey was expected to strengthen and produce sustained winds up to 120 mph, with higher gusts as it approached the coastline of Texas (around Corpus Christi and northeast to Sargent). Storm surge estimates range from 6 to 12 feet, and rainfall estimates typically range from 15 to 25 inches for this storm. In the Western Pacific Ocean Tropical Storm Pakhar was approaching the Philippines and is expected to bring heavy rains and high seas there for Friday and Saturday.


This week the New York Times published a well-documented study of the loss of permafrost in the state of Alaska. The pace of loss is greatly accelerated in the context of historical climate behavior, and concern is expressed over the amount of carbon that will be released in the thawing of vast amounts of permafrost in the Alaska landscape over the next century.


This week marked the 150th Anniversary of the birth of the iconic "Shipping Forecast" in the United Kingdom, founded by the famous Vice-Admiral Robert FitzRoy who captained the HMS Beagle during Charles Darwin's expedition. The Shipping Forecast is one of the most widely listened to broadcasts on the BBC. The UK Met Office and BBC posted interesting story about this.


Scientists from the University of Copenhagen reported this week from a study of Lake Catalina in East Greenland that using satellite data they have found evidence of four huge outburst floods over the past 50 years, each of which released over a half and up to one cubic mile volume of fresh water into a fjord.

MPR listener question:


I heard you talk to Cathy last week about Redwood Falls having its wettest August in history this year. Isn't August also the month with the most rainfall in history for Minnesota? I want to say this happened in 2007.

Answer:


For an individual location you are right. The all-time state record is 23.86 inches at Hokah (Houston County) in 2007. But on a statewide basis, August has not been our wettest month. Our wettest month on a statewide basis was June 2014 when the average rainfall from all observations across the state was 8.07 inches. List below are the top ten wettest months in history based on the statewide average rainfall reported from all climate stations.

(1) June 2014 8.07”

(2) Tie between July 1897 and June 1914 7.32”

(3) June 1905 6.83”

(4) August 1900 6.80”

(5) June 1915 6.72”

(6) June 1984 6.68”

(7) June 1957 6.67”

(8) June 1925 6.65”

(9) June 1944 6.54”(10)September 2010 6.41”

Twin Cities Almanac for August 25th:

The average MSP high temperature for this date is 79 degrees F (plus or minus 8 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 61 degrees F (plus or minus 6 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for August 25th:

MSP records for this date include: highest daily maximum temperature of 96 degrees F in 2013; lowest daily maximum temperature of 60 degrees F in 1958; lowest daily minimum temperature of 41 degrees F in 1887; highest daily minimum temperature of 80 degrees F in 2013; record precipitation of 1.51 inches in 1960. No snowfall has occurred on this date.

Average dew point for August 25th is 58°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 75°F in 1990; and the minimum dew point on this date is 26°F in 1934.

All-time state records for August 25th:


The all-time state high temperature for today's date is 102 degrees F at St Vincent (Kittson County) in 1886; the all-time state low for today's date is 25 degrees F at Littlefork (Koochiching County) in 1915. The all-time state record precipitation for this date is 5.08 inches at Pokegama Dam (Itasca County) in 1941. No snow has fallen on this date.

Past Weather Features:


Hot weather prevailed across the state on August 25, 1886. Most areas saw afternoon temperatures climb to 90°F plus, while portions of the Red River Valley recorded afternoon highs of 100 degrees F or greater.

Spectacular northern lights were observed across the sky all over the state of Minnesota on August 25, 1916 from 8pm to midnight. The aurora was so brilliant it was even visible for Twin City’s residents, rare indeed and almost unheard of today.

August 25th in 1917 was a cold one. Five communities in northern Minnesota reported frosts, while a number of communities reported daytime high temperatures that only reached the 60s F, and with a cool northwest wind felt even colder.

A system of organized thunderstorms known as a "derecho" crossed the state over August 25-26, 1990 producing heavy rains and strong winds, estimated at 70 to 80 mph. Many observers reported rains of 3-6 inches which produced widespread flash flooding. The strong winds damaged many farm buildings and caused power outages across Douglas, Grant, Wilkin, Big Stone, and Otter Tail Counties in western sections of the state.

The hottest August 25 in the modern era was in 2013 when over 100 communities reported afternoon temperatures in the 90s F. The afternoon Heat Index surpassed 100 degrees F at a number of locations. The nighttime temperatures were warm too, not falling below 75 degrees F at over 30 locations.

Outlook:


A cloudy weekend coming up with chances for showers and thunderstorms each day. Cooler than normal temperatures will prevail through the weekend. Drier weather on Monday, then a warming trend begins on Tuesday, with a drier pattern in place for much of next week.

Friday, August 18, 2017

What a rainy week!

What a rainy week!

Over the past week many parts of the state have reported rainfalls totaling over 5 inches. Thunderstorms over August 13-14 brought record-setting rainfall to some Minnesota communities, including: 3.75 inches at Montevideo; 3.00 inches at Alexandria; 2.20 inches at Windom; 2.04 inches at Long Prairie; and 1.38 inches at Grand Portage.

Then even heavier rains came over August 16-17 this week, along with a few tornadoes in Nicollet, Sibley, and Blue Earth Counties, all very short-lived. The rainfall in these thunderstorms was record-setting at many locations, even more so than the rains earlier in the week. Some of the new record amounts were:
8.12 inches at Redwood Falls (many flooded basements); 4.11 inches at Willmar; 3.98 inches at Vesta; 3.66 inches at Marshall; 3.57 inches at Montevideo; 3.18 inches at Melrose; 2.88 inches at Pokegama Dam; 2.73 inches at Lake City; 2.67 inches at Pipestone; 2.66 inches at Lakefield; and 2.49 inches at Pine River Dam. The 8.12 inches at Redwood Falls was a new statewide record for August 16th. The Redwood River at River Falls rose nearly 4 feet, while the Minnesota River at Montevideo rose over 6 feet in response to these heavy rains.

No hail reports were associated with these storms, but some thunderstorm associated winds damaged trees in McLeod, Renville, and Redwood Counties.

Redwood Falls with 11.15 inches of rain, and Montevideo with 9.98 inches have already recorded their wettest month of August in history, and there are still two weeks to go. More heavy rain is expected across the southern half of the state over August 20-21.

State Fair Time:


The Annual Minnesota State Fair will begin next Thursday, August 24th and run through Labor Day, September 4th. It appears that the beginning days of the Fair will be sunny and dry with cooler than normal temperatures, perhaps just in the 70s F. I will be at the MPR Booth (corner of Judson and Nelson on the fairgrounds) on two dates: Friday, August 25th at noon to record the TPT Almanac public affairs program with hosts Cathy Wurzer and Eric Eskola; and then again on August 29 (Tue) with host Tom Weber at 11am to broadcast the annual Minnesota Weather Quiz. Please stop by if you are at the Fair either of those days. For other MPR activities and events going on at the State Fair visit the MPR web site.

University of Minnesota Extension will be well represented at the State Fair as well, offering programs and visits with specialists and educators. For more information visit the Extension web site


Weekly Weather Potpourri:

NASA scientists reported this week that wildfires burning just west of the Greenland ice sheet and depositing a great deal of soot and ash on the ice. This may hasten further melting of the Greenland ice sheet for the balance of summer. It was also reported that at least one community in Greenland had dispatched some firefighters to investigate and perhaps even help suppress these fires, which are likely occurring in peatland landscapes.


NOAA reported that the month of July 2017 was the 10th warmest in history across the contiguous USA. In addition they report that the first seven months of 2017 (January through July) were the 2nd warmest in history for the contiguous 48 states, 3.2°F above the 20th Century average.


In related news, the Washington Post reported this week that Death Valley reported the hottest singular month in world history with a July 2017 mean temperature of 107.4 degrees F. This was over 5 degrees above normal for the month there. The extreme high temperature for the month was 127°F on the 7th, while the extreme low temperature was 89°F on the 5th and the 25th. On three nights the temperature never fell lower than 102 degrees F. Other western USA cities like Reno, NV and Salt Lake City, UT also reported their hottest month in history during July of 2017.


In this week’s Earth and Space Science News Sarah Witman reports on the value of expanded rain gauge deployment to help water resource planners better manage streamflow and other hydrologic attributes.

Twin Cities Almanac for August 18th:


The average MSP high temperature for this date is 80 degrees F (plus or minus 7 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 62 degrees F (plus or minus 7 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for August 18th:

MSP records for this date include: highest daily maximum temperature of 98 degrees F in 1976; lowest daily maximum temperature of 61 degrees F in 1890; lowest daily minimum temperature of 41 degrees F in 1977; highest daily minimum temperature of 77 degrees F in 1916; record precipitation of 2.26 inches in 1907. No snowfall has occurred on this date.

Average dew point for August 18th is 59°F; the maximum dew point on this date is 79°F in 1995; and the minimum dew point on this date is 36°F in 2004.

All-time state records for August 18th:


The all-time state high temperature for today's date is 107 degrees F at Browns Valley (Traverse County) in 1976; the all-time state low for today's date is 24 degrees F at Tower (St Louis County) in 1975. The all-time state record precipitation for this date is 5.78 inches at Artichoke Lake (Big Stone County) in 1935. No snow has fallen on this date.

Past Weather Features:


About 7:30 pm on August 18, 1907 an EF-2 tornado (winds around 135mph) passed near Maple Plain (Hennepin County) destroying 15 cottages on Lake Independence. It was on the ground for 20 miles, killing one person and injuring 15. A barn was destroyed killing five horses inside.

There was an autumn-like chill in the air on August 18, 1915. Some northern Minnesota communities reported frost, and in southern Minnesota at Caledonia (Houston County) the thermometer struggled to climb into the low 60s F.

Widespread frost was reported in northern Minnesota counties on August 18, 1975. At Roseau the morning low was 30 degrees F, and the afternoon sun only warmed the temperature into the upper 50s F, feeling more like October than August.

By far the warmest August 18th in history was in 1976 when 30 Minnesota communities saw the thermometer top 100 degrees F or higher. The temperature at Redwood Falls and Montevideo never dropped lower than 78 degrees F that day.

Persistent thunderstorms brought heavy rains to southern and western Minnesota over August 18-20, 1990. Many areas reported 3 to 6 inches of rainfall and flooded roads were common in Swift, Chippewa, and Kandiyohi Counties.

Outlook:


A mostly sunny weekend with high temperatures near average for this time of year. Then, there will be increasing cloudiness later on Sunday with a chance for showers and thunderstorms by Sunday night. The chance for showers will carry over into Monday with persistent cloudiness that may affect viewing of the eclipse. Cooler and drier will prevail for Tuesday through Thursday of next week.

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