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Friday, October 28, 2016

Preliminary Climate Summary for October 2016

Preliminary Climate Summary for October 2016:

Continuing the year-long trend October was warmer than normal, with approximately two-thirds of all the days recording warmer than average temperatures. Most observers reported mean monthly temperatures that were 2-4°F above normal. On a statewide basis this October will be among the warmest 20 in history. Extremes for the month ranged from 80°F at Milan (Chippewa County) and Marshall (Lyon County) on the 2nd to just 18°F at Embarrass (St Louis County) on the 25th. For the first 10 months of 2016 the statewide temperature ranks as the 4th warmest in history. Most areas of the state reported at least one frost during October. Just a few areas escaped frost during the month. Some of those included the Twin Cities Metro Core, and some communities along the Mississippi River bluff country in southeastern counties (Winona, La Crescent, Minnesota City).

October precipitation looks to be less than normal in the northern counties and much above normal in the south. Overall on a statewide basis it will be a slightly wetter than normal month. By far the largest amounts of precipitation fell in southern counties where many communities reported 3 to 4 inches. Wells and Winnebago, both in Faribault County reported over 5 inches of precipitation. Madison (1.98"), Minneota (1.97"), Winnebago (1.42"), and Worthington (1.60") all reported new record daily precipitation amounts on October 5th. In northern St Louis County, Orr, Embarrass, Cook, and Chisholm all reported measurable snowfall, from 0.1 to 1.0" on October 7th. For the first ten months of 2016 statewide average precipitation has been over 30 inches, ranking as the 3rd wettest historically. In south-central counties the first ten months of 2016 have been the wettest in history, surpassing 1993.

Topic: 25th Anniversary of the Halloween Blizzard:

For many Minnesota citizens the Halloween Blizzard of 1991 (Oct 31 to Nov 3) remains one of the most dramatic weather events of their lifetime. One of the largest, most intense, and longest lasting blizzards to ever hit the state, this storm paralyzed many sections of eastern Minnesota where roads and highways were closed, and also left over 100,000 customers without power due to power lines brought down by ice, which was up to 2 inches thick in some parts of southeastern Minnesota.
-Over 200 new daily snowfall records were set across the state during this storm, including four communities that reported over 20 inches in a 24-hr period.
-The 4-day blizzard left many areas of the state with record levels of snow depth for November, ranging from 25 to 35 inches.
-At the height of the blizzard snow accumulation was occurring at the rate of 3 inches/hour, with maximum wind gusts to 50 mph.
-At least 16 communities reported a storm total snowfall of 25 inches or greater, topped by 36.9 inches at Duluth.
-In the aftermath of the storm over 100 communities reported sub zero F low temperatures over the first few days of November.
-With such a snowy start to November, many places reported record snowfall for the month, including 46.9" at MSP, 50.1" at Duluth, 51.5" at Two Harbors, and 58.6" at Bruno

More information can be found at the State Climatology Office web site.

Weekly Weather Potpourri:

In a recent study NOAA researchers have found a link between warmer than normal water temperatures in the Gulf of Mexico and larger tornado numbers in the central USA. They argue that monitoring water temperatures in the Gulf will give forecasters better guidance to anticipate tornado outbreaks in the Southern Plains and Midwest.

You will find an interesting paper published this week in Geology which highlights the ocean role in moderating the 100,000 year ice age cycles. Ice cover, ocean circulation, and ocean temperatures all play a role in this, moderating the flux of carbon dioxide in the oceans and the atmosphere.

To commemorate the 100th Anniversary of doing weather forecasts for the military the United Kingdom Met Office this week released a brief report about significant military campaigns that were assisted by meteorological guidance, starting with WWI. Today, Mobile Meteorological Units are deployed to provide weather forecasts for the military on the spot where they are conducting field operations.

The Bureau of Meteorology in Australia released a report this week that links the higher frequency of extreme maximum temperatures as well as more frequent incidents of wild fires to climate change. Their State of the Climate 2016 report can be found online.

MPR listener question:

Our family is remembering the Halloween Blizzard of 25 years ago, when we were snowed in for 3 days after getting over two feet of snow with drifts over 6 feet high here in Forest Lake. Have there ever been other storms equivalent to that one in this area?


Based on storm intensity, duration, and amount of snowfall, there are only two historical analogies for the Twin Cities area. January 12-16, 1887 a slow moving low pressure system brought 5 consecutive days of snow, totaling over 19 inches to the Twin Cities area, closing businesses in both St Paul and Minneapolis, as well as making sledding difficult to get around the streets. The other episode was over January 20-25, 1982 when dual low pressure systems brought snowfall over 6 consecutive days totaling over 20 inches in many parts of the Twin Cities Metro Area (39.7 inches at MSP Airport). This caused road closures and collapsed roofs in many areas.

Twin Cities Almanac for October 28th:

The average MSP high temperature for this date is 52 degrees F (plus or minus 11 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 35 degrees F (plus or minus 9 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for October 28th

MSP weather records for this date include: highest daily maximum temperature of 75 degrees F in 1948; lowest daily maximum temperature of 24 degrees F in 1925; lowest daily minimum temperature is 17 degrees F in 1905 and 1925; highest daily minimum temperature of 56 degrees F in 1974; record precipitation of 1.97 inches in 1874; and a record snowfall of 0.4 inches in 1895.

Average dew point for October 28th is 34 degrees F, with a maximum of 59 degrees F in 1946 and a minimum of 9 degrees F in 2008.

All-time state records for October 28th:

The state record high temperature for this date is 83 degrees F at Browns Valley (Traverse County) in 1983. The state record low temperature for this date is -9 degrees F at Angus (Polk County) in 1919. State record precipitation for this date is 3.10 inches at Caledonia (Houston County) in 1900; and record snowfall is 9.5 inches at Big Falls (Koochiching County) in 1932.

Past Weather Features:

Thunderstorms brought heavy rains to parts of the state over October 27-28, 1900. Many areas received 1-2 inches and in southeastern counties some observers reported over 3 inches of rain.

The coldest October 28th in state history occurred in 1919 when most parts of the state saw morning low temperatures dip into the single digits or teens. Some climate stations in northern and western counties reported subzero low temperatures and it fell to just 6 degrees F at Redwood Falls.

A slow moving low pressure system brought a major winter storm to the state over October 28-30, 1932. Many communities reported 3-6 inches of snowfall, and 10-14 inches of snowfall was reported in far northern Minnesota.

The warmest October 28th in state history came in 1983 when nearly all areas saw afternoon temperatures climb into the 70s F. Twelve climate stations reported a high temperature of 80 degrees F or greater, including a reading of 80°F at Brainerd.

Word of the Week: Ceraunograph

This instrument (pronounced sir-rono-graph) is devised to measure or count lightning strikes. It was first used by Rev. F.L. Odenbach of St Ignatius College in Cleveland, OH during the early 20th Century. The electro-magnetic waves emitted from a lightning strike are received by a copper coil and translated to a paper chart. Now there are even portable lightning detection meters that can be used on backpacking or hiking trips. (Note thanks to Lucas Graunke of the MN State Climatology Office for finding the articles about this old instrument).


Cloudy with a chance for rain on Saturday, while temperatures remain slightly warmer than normal. Drier on Sunday. Warmer on Monday with a chance for showers later in the day. Then mostly quiet weather wise for next week with daytime highs a few degrees warmer than normal.


Friday, October 21, 2016

New Seasonal Climate Outlook

New Seasonal Climate Outlook:

The NOAA Climate Prediction Center released the winter seasonal climate outlook on Thursday of this week. NOAA scientists acknowledged that they factored in the presence of a weak La Nina (cooler than normal equatorial Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures) in the outlook. Although November is expected to start out warmer than normal the outlook for the coming November through March period mostly favors cooler than normal temperatures and above normal precipitation for Minnesota. Given the trend for such a warm year in 2016, this outlook is baffling in the context of expecting to see a reversal of this trend that persists through the winter. After all, over 72 percent of all days in the past 12 months have brought warmer than normal temperatures to Minnesota.

New record high dew points this week:

Strong south winds ushered in some warm, moist air over Sunday and Monday (Oct 16-17) raising dew points across the state to near record levels for this time of year. The high afternoon temperatures reached into the 70s F across southern Minnesota on both days, with a high of 77°F at La Crescent on Monday setting a new high temperature record for the date. The Twin Cities saw a dew point of 64°F on Monday, just two degrees shy of the record highest for the date. Rochester reported a new record high dew point of 68°F on Monday, while the dew point at La Crosse, WI rose to 70°F on Monday which tied the all-time highest ever measured during the month of October. Two days later dew points dropped into the upper 20s to low 30s F.

Composting leaves and yard waste:

Are you already raking and bagging leaves this autumn? Seems like in many areas yards are starting to fill with them. Many homeowners around the state compost leaves in the fall. My University Department of Soil, Water, and Climate has developed recommendations for composting and mulching of organic yard wastes, including leaves (by authors Halbach and Rosen). In fact there is an online guide to composting and mulching which is available from the University of Minnesota Extension. I encourage you to take a look at it.

24th Annual Kuehnast Lecture Video Online:

The recent Kuehnast Endowment Lecture Program related to climate change, energy, and the free enterprise system presented by Paul Douglas (President of Aeris Weather) and former SC Congressman Bob Inglis (founder of RepublicEN) is now available for viewing. You can watch it on the Youtube site.

Weekly Weather Potpourri:

This week NOAA scientist Deke Arndt features an interesting article on the wettest and driest places in the USA based on long term climate stations. It is interesting to see the extremes in precipitation coming from a wide range of geography. For example, did you know that it rains less than 18 days per year at Yuma, Arizona, but over 272 days per year at Hilo, Hawaii?

Typhoon Haima brought heavy rains, strong winds and high seas to northern parts of the Philippines this week. It was estimated that 60,000 people in the Philippines were displaced by the rain and winds. The storm is then headed towards Hong Kong and SE China on Friday, and caused a cancellation of nearly 700 flights at the Hong Kong Airport, as well as a early closure of the business district. Heavy rains were expected over SE China into the weekend.

Earlier this month the NY Times featured an article about the critical need for the National Weather Service to upgrade their forecast models. In recent years it appears that other weather services (notably in the United Kingdom) have made progress in deploying next generation computer technology to upgrade their forecast models, and which now do a more accurate job of forecasting weather elements both spatially and temporally. Hopefully the NOAA National Weather Service will be able to follow suit in coming years. (Thanks to former MPR colleague Bob Potter for mentioning this article)

Scientists at North Carolina State University have found that measurements of wind patterns in the lowest 500 meter layer of the atmosphere around supercell thunderstorms can provide clues to whether or not a tornado will develop. This information provides the potential for meteorologists to improve their forecasting of tornadoes. You can read more about this at the Science Daily web site.

MPR listener question:

A low temperature of 36°F this week, but still no sign of frost this fall at my house in Richfield, not far from the MSP Airport. How often has the first autumn frost in the Twin Cities not arrived until November?


Looking back in the Twin Cities climate records to 1873, only 7 years have brought the first autumn frost in the month of November, the latest coming on November 7, 1900. So if this should happen again this year it would indeed be a rare occurrence. BTW the first autumn frost in the Twin Cities last year was on October 17th, and the earliest ever was September 3, 1974.

Twin Cities Almanac for October 21st:

The average MSP high temperature for this date is 56 degrees F (plus or minus 11 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 38 degrees F (plus or minus 9 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for October 21st:

MSP weather records for this date include: highest daily maximum temperature of 88 degrees F in 1947; lowest daily maximum temperature of 29 degrees F in 1913; lowest daily minimum temperature is 16 degrees F in 1913; highest daily minimum temperature of 62 degrees F in 1920; record precipitation of 1.76 inches in 1894; and a record snowfall of 0.4 inches in 2002.

Average dew point for October 21st is 37 degrees F, with a maximum of 64 degrees F in 1920 and a minimum of 8 degrees F in 1952.

All-time state records for October 21st:

The state record high temperature for this date is 91 degrees F at Little Falls (Morrison County) in 1947. The state record low temperature for this date is -2 degrees F at Roseau (Roseau County) in 1913. State record precipitation for this date is 2.35 inches at Harmony (Fillmore County) in 1982; and record snowfall is 8.0 inches at Milaca (Mille Lacs County) in 2002.

Past Weather Features:

An early snow storm brought 6-10 inches of snowfall over October 20-21, 1906. Fortunately the snow was short-lived, as temperatures warmed into the 40s and 50s F over the next several days.

October 21, 1913 was the coldest in state history as morning temperatures fell into the teens F all over the state. Many observers reported morning lows in the single digits as well, with a reading of only 6 degrees F as far south as Windom (Cottonwood County).

October 21, 1947 was the warmest in state history. Nearly all communities in the state reported afternoon temperatures in the 70s and 80s F. Little Falls started the day with a morning low of 39°F, but under bright sun and with a strong southern breeze they warmed to 92°F by late afternoon.

October 19-21, 1982 brought heavy rains to many parts of the state, interrupting the corn harvest. Most observers reported from 1 to 2 inches, but Lanesboro and Preston reported over 3 inches.

October 20-21, 2002 brought an early season snowfall to the state, especially across central Minnesota counties. An area from Todd County east to Pine County reported from 3 to 9 inches of snowfall. Some snow-related accidents were reported along Highway 10 in central Minnesota.


Generally warmer than normal temperatures over the weekend, with a sunny Saturday, and a cloudy Sunday. Chance for rain showers in the far north. Continued warm temperatures into next week with a chance for rain showers again by Tuesday and Wednesday.



Friday, October 14, 2016

First widespread frosts of the autumn

First widespread frosts of the autumn:

Since last Friday, most of the state landscape has recorded the first frost of the season. In many areas low temperatures have dropped into the 20s F, ending the gardening season. Nearly all crops reached maturity without any frost damage this year, and both corn and soybeans have been drying now nicely in the field this week. Early morning lows as cold as 28F were reported from as far south as Preston, Zumbrota, and Austin on October 13th. Up north in Clay County the Georgetown observer reported 25F on October 9th. Only a few places along the Mississippi River in southeastern Minnesota and within the core of the Twin Cities Metro Area have not yet reported a frost this month.

Wet trend continues:

Following a wet first week of the month (some reported record daily rainfall on the 5th) rainfall has been less during the second week generally, but some observers reported a half inch to over an inch of rainfall over the second week of the month. Many have already reported a monthly total that exceeds the October average (over 2 inches). Waseca has already reported 50.59 inches of precipitation in 2016, a new annual record for that location, and there are still two and a half months left in the year. St James (Watonwan County) reports a total precipitation for the year so far of 47.47 inches which is already an all-time record there as well.

Hurricane Matthew Rainfalls:

Speaking of rainfalls, Hurricane Matthew brought record rainfalls to some of the Atlantic Coastal states last weekend. Many coastal regions of South Carolina and North Carolina reported 10-15 inches of rainfall. In North Carolina 39 climate stations reported new daily record rainfalls, some of which were over 9 inches. In South Carolina 19 climate stations reported new daily rainfall records, with 12 inches at Manning on the 8th. And in Florida 11 climate stations reported new daily record rainfall amounts, including 6.38 inches at Titusville on the 7th. Most of the damage from Hurricane Matthew was in coastal erosion (tidal surge0 and flooding. The National Weather Service in Charleston, SC provided a summary of winds and rainfall from the hurricane, as did the NWS Office at Wilmington, NC.

Weekly Weather Potpourri:

Hurricane Nicole, a Category 3 storm brought heavy rains (up to 8 inches), strong winds (up to 115 mph), and storm surge of 6 to 8 feet to parts of Bermuda on Thursday of this week. It was expected to move off into the northeast and become extra-tropical by the weekend, lingering southeast of Newfoundland.

NOAA's latest ENSO Outlook suggests that there is a 70 percent chance that a weak La Nina episode may form late this autumn season. If it does there may be implications for the climate patterns during the winter season (Dec-Feb), but we won't see that factored into the CPC outlooks until next week.

There is an interesting assessment of the vulnerability of older building structures to climate change posted on the U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit web site this week. "The increased frequency of some extreme weather events and expected changes in "everyday" climate conditions may present a challenge to older buildings and infrastructure. Bolstering outdated structures and implementing updated building codes may help reduce vulnerabilities."

A team of researchers from Virginia Tech recently published an article in the journal Climate Change where they suggest that future changes in precipitation may result in enhanced agricultural and hydrologic resources for Ethiopia, with positive implications for the economy of that country.

MPR listener question:

You and Cathy have remarked about the long string of warmer than normal months this year. When was the last time Minnesota experienced 3 consecutive colder than normal months?


Indeed, 6 of the 9 months so far this year have been significantly warmer than normal in Minnesota, two months were slightly warmer than normal, and only April of this year was cooler than normal on a statewide basis. The last significantly cooler than normal run of temperatures in Minnesota of 3 months duration or longer was from November of 2013 to April of 2014, a run of 6 consecutive months. Since 1996 only three years in Minnesota have been cooler than normal when averaging all 12 months. Those were 2008, 2013 and 2014.

Twin Cities Almanac for October 14th:

The average MSP high temperature for this date is 59 degrees F (plus or minus 11 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 40 degrees F (plus or minus 8 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for October 14th:

MSP weather records for this date include: highest daily maximum temperature of 86 degrees F in 1947; lowest daily maximum temperature of 40 degrees F in 1909 and 1943; lowest daily minimum temperature is 24 degrees F in 1937; highest daily minimum temperature of 66 degrees F in 1968; record precipitation of 1.89 inches in 1966; and a trace of snowfall was recorded in this date in 1909, 1943, and 1959.

Average dew point for October 14th is 41 degrees F, with a maximum of 70 degrees F in 1962 and a minimum of 17 degrees F in 2006.

All-time state records for October 14th:

The state record high temperature for this date is 91 degrees F at Redwood Falls (Redwood County) in 1947. The state record low temperature for this date is 8 degrees F at Beardsley (Big Stone County) in 1937. State record precipitation for this date is 4.45 inches at Mahnomen (Mahnomen County) in 1984; and record snowfall is 4.1 inches at Argyle (Marshall County) in 1992.

Past Weather Features:

The coldest October 14th in state history occurred in 1937. In western and northern counties morning low temperatures ranged from 8F to 15F, and as far south as St Peter it was just 17F. Two days later Mother Nature brought a warm rainfall to the state with temperatures that were 30-40 degrees higher.

The warmest October 14th in state history occurred in 1947. With strong sunshine and a south wind many areas of Minnesota warmed up to afternoon high temperatures that were 25-30 degrees F above normal. Over 50 communities reported highs in the 80s F, while both Redwood Falls and St Peter reached 90 degrees F or higher. 1947 brought the 2nd warmest October in state history, with several days reaching the 90s F.

A slow moving storm system brought heavy rain and even some thunderstorms to the state over October 14-16, 1984. Many observers reported from 3 to 5 inches of rain, while portions of Douglas, Clearwater, and Mahnomen Counties received over 5 inches causing some local flooding.

October 14-16, 1992 brought an early snow storm to the state. Unfortunately many crops were still unharvested and this storm further delayed those operations. Areas of western Minnesota reported 2-4 inches of snowfall, while the south received trace amounts up to 2 inches.


Cloudy and warm on Saturday with a chance for showers, especially in eastern sections. Brighter on Sunday and still warmer than normal, with increasing clouds by evening and a chance for showers. Chance for showers will be continuing on Monday and Tuesday. Cooler by mid-week with temperatures closer to normal. More sun on Wednesday and Thursday.

Friday, October 7, 2016

Beautiful start to October

Beautiful start to October:

Four of the first five days of the month brought either perfectly clear days or mostly sunny skies to the state with comfortable temperatures, light winds, and low relative humidity. Beautiful autumn weather prevailed and raised everyone’s spirits.

This pattern conforms to a study of Dr. Donald Baker at the University of Minnesota several decades ago that showed late September and early October had the highest frequency of clear skies of any period in the year. Dr. Kenny Blumenfeld of the DNR State Climatology Office has updated the autumn climate pattern associated with clear sky frequencies in Minnesota.

With the clear skies dominating early October, some of the overnight low temperatures have fallen into the 30s F. Such low temperatures were common this week in northern communities. Temperatures in the 30s F were also reported from Redwood Falls and Lake Wilson in southwestern Minnesota, and it was just 32°F one morning this week at Luverne (Rock County).

The first snowfalls of the season in Minnesota were also reported this week (Thursday night) from areas of St Louis County, including Embarrass with 0.5 inches, Orr with 0.7 inches, and Celina with 1.0 inches. Still other locations reported a trace of snow.

The 24th Annual Kuehnast Lecture, October 12th:

The24th Annual Kuehnast Endowment Lecture will take place on Wednesday, October 12th at 2pm in the University of Minnesota St Paul Campus Student Center Theater. Our topic this year is “Climate Change and the American Free Enterprise System.” Our speakers are Paul Douglas, former Twin Cities broadcast meteorologist and President of Aeris Weather; and Bob Inglis, former South Carolina Republican Congressman and founder of, which is centered on conservative principles and a free-enterprise solution to climate change. This program is free and open to the public.

Hurricane Matthew hits Florida:

Strong Hurricane Matthew ran up along the Atlantic coast of Florida on Thursday and Friday this week as a Category 3 systems (winds 111-129 mph) and a storm surge of 7 to 11 feet, rainfall totals of 6 to 12 inches, and wave heights of 10 to 20 feet. It is likely to be the most destructive hurricane to hit Florida in decades, perhaps since Hurricane Andrew in 1992. Undoubtedly there will be more headlines about Matthew this weekend.

Weekly Weather Potpourri:

The EPA announced recently a new web portal to help communities prepare for climate change through adaptation strategies and practices. It is tailored to the geography and climates of different regions of the country.

There is an interesting article this week by NOAA about climate change impacts on the New England lobster. Changes in water temperatures are having an effect on their population and range.

New research from Rutgers University scientists suggests that as climate continues to change, the combined warming of the Atlantic Ocean and the atmosphere will produce the potential for more power tropical storms than Hurricane Sandy.

Earth& Space Science News featured an article this week about the big hurricane season in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean during 2015. Record breaking levels of sea surface temperatures had a lot to do with it.

MPR listener question:

You remarked earlier on Morning Edition that some areas of northern Minnesota may have their first snow in October. Where specifically do you think this might happen?


Well, the National Weather Service issued its first winter weather advisory of the season on Thursday night this week. Counties that might see their first autumn snowfall include Beltrami, Koochiching, St Louis, Lake of the Woods, Cook, Lake, and Clearwater. So we’ll see if measurable amounts are recorded there.

Twin Cities Almanac for October 7th:

The average MSP high temperature for this date is 62 degrees F (plus or minus 10 degrees F standard deviation), while the average low is 43 degrees F (plus or minus 8 degrees F standard deviation).

MSP Local Records for October 7th:

MSP weather records for this date include: highest daily maximum temperature of 85 degrees F in 1997, 2003, and 2011; lowest daily maximum temperature of 41 degrees F in 1915 and 2000; lowest daily minimum temperature is 25 degrees F in 1976; highest daily minimum temperature of 68 degrees F in 1879; record precipitation of 0.98 inches in 1904; and a trace of snowfall was recorded in this date in several years, most recently in 2002.

Average dew point for October 7th is 41 degrees F, with a maximum of 70 degrees F in 2007 and a minimum of 14 degrees F in 2012.

All-time state records for October 7th:

The state record high temperature for this date is 94 degrees F at Canby (Yellow Medicine County) in 1993. The state record low temperature for this date is 11 degrees F at Fort Ripley (Crow Wing County) in 1876. State record precipitation for this date is 3.50 inches at Mankato (Blue Earth County) in 1931; and record snowfall is 4.0 inches at Morris (Stevens County) in 1894.

Past Weather Features:

On October 7, 1894 from 1 to 3 inches of snow fell across portions of central Minnesota. The observer at Moorhead reported 3.3 inches. t was an early start to the snow season.

Very hard freeze occurred on October 7, 1896 with temperatures in the teens and twenties F from the Iowa border all the way north to Canada. It was 14°F at Pokegama Dam and 24°F at Grand Meadow. This was an abrupt end to what had been a relatively mild autumn.

October 7, 1992 brought heavy rains to southern Minnesota as several climate stations reported over 2 inches of rain, abruptly halting the harvest season for corn and soybeans. Owatonna received over 3 inches. October 7, 1993 was the warmest in history, with afternoon temperatures ranging into the 80s F in almost all parts of the state. Scores of communities set daily high temperature records.


Cooler than normal temperatures over the weekend with chances for patchy frosts. Warming trend begins on Monday and runs through much of next week, with a chance for precipitation on Tuesday and Wednesday. Sharply warmer by the end of next week.

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